Rational optimization of drug-target residence time: insights from inhibitor binding to the Staphylococcus aureus FabI enzyme-product complex

Biochemistry
Andrew ChangPeter J Tonge

Abstract

Drug-target kinetics has recently emerged as an especially important facet of the drug discovery process. In particular, prolonged drug-target residence times may confer enhanced efficacy and selectivity in the open in vivo system. However, the lack of accurate kinetic and structural data for a series of congeneric compounds hinders the rational design of inhibitors with decreased off-rates. Therefore, we chose the Staphylococcus aureus enoyl-ACP reductase (saFabI)--an important target for the development of new anti-staphylococcal drugs--as a model system to rationalize and optimize the drug-target residence time on a structural basis. Using our new, efficient, and widely applicable mechanistically informed kinetic approach, we obtained a full characterization of saFabI inhibition by a series of 20 diphenyl ethers complemented by a collection of 9 saFabI-inhibitor crystal structures. We identified a strong correlation between the affinities of the investigated saFabI diphenyl ether inhibitors and their corresponding residence times, which can be rationalized on a structural basis. Because of its favorable interactions with the enzyme, the residence time of our most potent compound exceeds 10 h. In addition, we found that affin...Continue Reading

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