Apr 1, 2020

Recent Advances and Future Perspectives of In Vivo Targeted Delivery of Genome-Editing Reagents to Germ Cells, Embryos, and Fetuses in Mice

Cells
Masahiro SatoShingo Nakamura

Abstract

The recently discovered clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein 9 (Cas9) systems that occur in nature as microbial adaptive immune systems are considered an important tool in assessing the function of genes of interest in various biological systems. Thus, development of efficient and simple methods to produce genome-edited (GE) animals would accelerate research in this field. The CRISPR/Cas9 system was initially employed in early embryos, utilizing classical gene delivery methods such as microinjection or electroporation, which required ex vivo handling of zygotes before transfer to recipients. Recently, novel in vivo methods such as genome editing via oviductal nucleic acid delivery (GONAD), improved GONAD (i-GONAD), or transplacental gene delivery for acquiring genome-edited fetuses (TPGD-GEF), which facilitate easy embryo manipulation, have been established. Studies utilizing these techniques employed pregnant female mice for direct introduction of the genome-editing components into the oviduct or were dependent on delivery via tail-vein injection. In mice, embryogenesis occurs within the oviducts and the uterus, which often hampers the genetic manipulation of embryos, especially...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Nucleic Acids
Research
Immune System
Gonadal Hormones
Culture of Embryo
In Vivo
Employed
Genes
Targeted Therapy
Microinjections

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