Apr 28, 2016

Recent advances in nontoxic Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin and its derivative adjuvants

Expert Review of Vaccines
Yongping Ma

Abstract

The nontoxic heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) of Escherichia coli and the B subunit of LT (LTB) have been extensively studied as potent vaccine adjuvants. Areas covered: This review covers the area of enterotoxin based vaccine adjuvant and summarizes the development of nontoxic LT mutant (mLT) and LTB and their potency as oral, parenteral and injection adjuvants. Recent evidences indicated that the mechanism of LTB adjuvanticity was to enhance the turnover of dendritic cells (DCs) in spleen and increase DCs capacity to perform as antigen presentation cells (APCs) encountered with T cells. LTB also induces B and T cells clustering and delay/arrest in T-cell division following endocytosis or B-cell receptor (BCR) uptaking of antigen in a ganglioside-mediated manner. Expert commentary: It is pointed out that the immunogenicity of LTB (or LT) is more important than the receptor binding property (or ADP-ribosylation activity) for the adjuvanticity of LT toxoid. The immunogenicity of LTB (or LT) might confer unknown characteristics to maintain LT toxoid adjuvanticity.

Mentioned in this Paper

Toxoids
T-Lymphocyte
Endocytosis
Immunologic Adjuvants
APC gene
Spleen
Bacterial Toxins
Adjuvant
Proteins, Recombinant DNA
Anatoxin Toxoids

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