Recent cardiovascular drugs from Chinese medicinal plants
This paper describes the pharmacology of some recent cardiovascular drugs derived from plants used in Chinese traditional medicine. The groups of compounds discussed are benzylisoquinolines (several), tetrahydropyrazine (also called ligustrazine), rhynchophylline and hirsutine, ginkgolides and other PAF inhibitors, coumarins, and ginsenosides, plus a miscellaneous group; approximately 30 substances in all. The plant sources and the pharmacology are indicated for the drugs in each group. By far the most studied compounds are the benzylisoquinolines, especially tetrandrine. The types of pharmacological activity recently described for cardiovascular drugs from plants include calcium antagonism, adrenoceptor antagonism, antagonism of platelet activating factor (PAF), and the ability to act as antioxidants. Hundreds of chemicals have been isolated and identified as constituents of thousands of plants but the basic and clinical pharmacology is known for only a handful of these drugs. Much more research is needed, especially with regard to the pharmacology, both basic and clinical, of the pure chemicals derived from plants.
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Mechanisms responsible for the in vitro relaxation of ligustrazine on porcine left anterior descending coronary artery
Specific inhibiting characteristics of tetramethylpyrazine, one of the active ingredients of the Chinese herbal medicine 'Chuanxiong,' on platelet thrombus formation under high shear rates
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Tetrandrine reverses drug resistance in isoniazid and ethambutol dual drug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates
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Rhynchophylline Ameliorates Endothelial Dysfunction via Src-PI3K/Akt-eNOS Cascade in the Cultured Intrarenal Arteries of Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats
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The effect of herbal medicines on platelet function: an in vivo experiment and review of the literature
Ginsenoside-Rb1 and tetramethylpyrazine phosphate act synergistically to prevent dilated cardiomyopathy in cTnTR141W transgenic mice
Tetramethylpyrazine inhibits angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and tumor necrosis factor-α secretion through an NF-κB-dependent mechanism
Synergistic effect of tetrandrine and ethidium bromide against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)
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Rhynchophylline from Uncaria rhynchophylla functionally turns delayed rectifiers into A-Type K+ channels
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