Mar 7, 2003

Recent developments in orofacial cleft genetics

The Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Francesco CarinciMauro Tognon


Nonsyndromic cleft of the lip and/or palate (CLP or orofacial cleft) derives from an embryopathy with consequent failure of the nasal process and/or palatal shelves fusion. This severe birth defect is one of the most common malformations among live births. Nonsyndromic CLP is composed of two separate entities: cleft lip and palate (CL+/-P) and cleft palate only (CPO). Both have a genetic background, and environmental factors probably disclose these malformations. In CL+/-P, several loci have been identified, and, in one case, a specific gene has also been found. In CPO, one gene has been identified, but many more are probably involved. Because of the complexity of the genetics of nonsyndromic CLP as a result of the difference between CL+/-P and CPO, heterogeneity of each group caused by the number of involved genes, type of inheritance, and interaction with environmental factors, we discuss the more sound results obtained with different approaches: epidemiological studies, animal models, human genetic studies, and in vitro studies.

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Mentioned in this Paper

Structure of Papilla Incisiva of Mouth
Human Genetics
Cleft Palate, Isolated
Properdin Deficiency, X-LINKED
External Nose Structure
Genome Mapping
Genetic Inheritance

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