Recent progress on the characterization of aldonolactone oxidoreductases

Plant Physiology and Biochemistry : PPB
Siddique I Aboobucker, Argelia Lorence

Abstract

L-Ascorbic acid (ascorbate, AsA, vitamin C) is essential for animal and plant health. Despite our dependence on fruits and vegetables to fulfill our requirement for this vitamin, the metabolic network leading to its formation in plants is just being fully elucidated. There is evidence supporting the operation of at least four biosynthetic pathways leading to AsA formation in plants. These routes use D-mannose/L-galactose, L-gulose, D-galacturonate, and myo-inositol as the main precursors. This review focuses on aldonolactone oxidoreductases, a subgroup of the vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO; EC 1.1.3.38) superfamily, enzymes that catalyze the terminal step in AsA biosynthesis in bacteria, protozoa, animals, and plants. In this report, we review the properties of well characterized aldonolactone oxidoreductases to date. A shared feature in these proteins is the presence of a flavin cofactor as well as a thiol group. The flavin cofactor in many cases is bound to the N terminus of the enzymes or to a recently discovered HWXK motif in the C terminus. The binding between the flavin moiety and the protein can be either covalent or non-covalent. Substrate specificity and subcellular localization differ among the isozymes of each kingdom...Continue Reading

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Citations

Sep 23, 2020·Biotechnology Advances·Simone Savino, Marco W Fraaije

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