Reducing the dimensionality of data with neural networks

Science
Geoffrey Hinton, Ruslan Salakhutdinov

Abstract

High-dimensional data can be converted to low-dimensional codes by training a multilayer neural network with a small central layer to reconstruct high-dimensional input vectors. Gradient descent can be used for fine-tuning the weights in such "autoencoder" networks, but this works well only if the initial weights are close to a good solution. We describe an effective way of initializing the weights that allows deep autoencoder networks to learn low-dimensional codes that work much better than principal components analysis as a tool to reduce the dimensionality of data.

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Jul 18, 2019·Cytometry. Part a : the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology·Juan C CaicedoAnne E Carpenter
Feb 28, 2018·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·C Robert Cloninger, Igor Zwir
Jan 3, 2018·Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences·Marco Zorzi, Alberto Testolin
Jun 20, 2017·Molecular Informatics·Nelly I Zhokhova, Igor I Baskin
Jul 31, 2016·Molecular Systems Biology·Christof AngermuellerOliver Stegle
Oct 20, 2018·Journal of Digital Imaging·Yujing ZhouXiubao Sui
Aug 23, 2019·American Journal of Industrial Medicine·John Howard
Aug 22, 2019·Physics in Medicine and Biology·Shuiping GouLicheng Jiao
Aug 23, 2019·Network : Computation in Neural Systems·L I Abdul-Kreem
Aug 8, 2019·Magnetic Resonance in Medicine : Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine·Sebastiano BarbieriHarriet C Thoeny
Jun 26, 2017·Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience·Arthur S Sherman, Joon Ha
Oct 18, 2019·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Jiequn HanWeinan E
Nov 7, 2019·Plants·Muhammad Hammad SaleemKhalid Mahmood Arif
Feb 23, 2019·Scientific Reports·Farzad AbdolhosseiniHamidreza Chitsaz
Sep 19, 2019·The Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging : Official Publication of the Italian Association of Nuclear Medicine (AIMN) [and] the International Association of Radiopharmacology (IAR), [and] Section of the Society of Radiopharmaceutica·Lise WeiIssam El Naqa
Aug 23, 2019·Neurology and Therapy·Aly Al-Amyn VallianiEric Karl Oermann
Jan 18, 2020·Briefings in Bioinformatics·Maryam BagherianKayvan Najarian
Jan 18, 2020·Briefings in Bioinformatics·Delora BaptistaMiguel Rocha
Jan 23, 2020·The British Journal of Radiology·Issam El NaqaRandall K Ten Haken
Nov 12, 2019·Frontiers in Genetics·Carlos Torroja, Fatima Sanchez-Cabo
Feb 7, 2020·PLoS Computational Biology·Kaeser M SabrinConstantine Dovrolis
Dec 24, 2019·Journal of X-ray Science and Technology·Zhiqiong WangJiren Liu
Aug 20, 2019·Chinese Medical Journal·Cheng-Xu LiYong Cui
Mar 19, 2020·Neural Computation·Jing GaoJianing Zhang
Mar 19, 2020·Neural Computation·Noah Frazier-Logue, Stephen José Hanson
Apr 15, 2020·International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health·Xi ChengJoe Wiart
Apr 20, 2020·Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology·Nicole L ZainoMichael H Schwartz
Feb 6, 2019·Oncotarget·Masamitsu Konno, Hideshi Ishii
Oct 9, 2019·PloS One·Hongliang FuJing Yang
Aug 30, 2017·PloS One·Ningning LiuLiming Chen
Nov 7, 2019·Acta Crystallographica. Section A, Foundations and Advances·Yintao SongXian Chen
Sep 1, 2019·Nature Methods·Jingshu WangNancy R Zhang
May 23, 2020·The British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology·Xueying TangZhiliang Ying
May 18, 2020·Medical Physics·Michele AvanzoIssam El Naqa
Mar 8, 2020·Conservation Biology : the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology·Alfonso B LabaoHelen T Yap
Jun 22, 2019·Scientific Reports·Benjamin SzubertIgnat Drozdov
Jun 23, 2020·Briefings in Functional Genomics·Duc-Hau Le
Jul 14, 2020·Hypertension Research : Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension·Hiroshi KoshimizuYasushi Okuno
Jul 19, 2020·Journal of Clinical Medicine·Anna Karen Gárate-EscamillaAmir Hajjam El Hassani
Apr 11, 2019·Protein and Peptide Letters·Yijie DingFei Guo
Apr 16, 2020·Physics in Medicine and Biology·Zhiguo ZhouJing Wang
Sep 18, 2020·SLAS Technology·Masturah Bte Mohd Abdul Rashid
Jul 23, 2016·Frontiers in Neuroscience·Emre O NeftciGert Cauwenberghs
Oct 1, 2020·PloS One·Zachary A Pardos, Andrew Joo Hun Nam
May 10, 2017·Briefings in Bioinformatics·Riccardo MiottoJoel T Dudley
Jun 13, 2015·Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics·Haiping Huang, Taro Toyoizumi
Nov 22, 2016·Molecular Informatics·Alex T MüllerGisbert Schneider
Oct 4, 2016·European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology·Jörn Lötsch, Alfred Ultsch
Nov 16, 2016·Scientific Reports·Weidong GengJiajun Li
Mar 17, 2017·Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering·Dinggang ShenHeung-Il Suk
Mar 9, 2017·Biomedical Optics Express·Hu ChenGe Wang
Feb 16, 2017·Frontiers in Neuroscience·Maria G Di BonoCarlo Umiltà
May 4, 2017·Applied Optics·Tomoyoshi ShimobabaTomoyoshi Ito
Jul 27, 2017·BioMed Research International·Xianchun ZouGuoxian Yu
Sep 9, 2017·Bioinformatics·Sai ZhangJianyang Zeng
Oct 7, 2017·BMC Bioinformatics·Jonathan D YoungXinghua Lu
Mar 1, 2018·Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience·Athanasios VoulodimosEftychios Protopapadakis
Jan 10, 2018·Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience·Eftychios ProtopapadakisMatthaios Bimpas
Jun 30, 2018·Journal of Medical Systems·Kun LanNilanjan Dey
Jun 21, 2018·Nature Communications·Decebal Constantin MocanuAntonio Liotta
Jun 17, 2018·Physical Review. E·Satoshi IsoSumito Yokoo
Jul 2, 2018·The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America·Tom Gajęcki, Waldo Nogueira
Jun 13, 2018·Scientific Reports·Zohreh Gholami DoborjehAlexander Sumich
Aug 30, 2018·Developmental Science·Alexander LaTourrette, Sandra R Waxman
Jun 30, 2018·Physical Review Letters·Giacomo Torlai, Roger G Melko
Sep 21, 2018·Frontiers in Neuroscience·Hesham MostafaGert Cauwenberghs
Sep 29, 2018·Briefings in Functional Genomics·Zhiqiang ZhangShaoliang Peng
Dec 23, 2018·Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging : JMRI·Maciej A MazurowskiMustafa R Bashir
Dec 12, 2018·Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association : JAMIA·Mrinal Kanti BaowalyKuan-Ta Chen
Dec 20, 2018·Cytometry. Part a : the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology·Anindya GuptaCarolina Wählby
Jan 16, 2019·Optics Express·Xu MaGonzalo R Arce
Feb 17, 2019·Molecular Psychiatry·Daniel DurstewitzAndreas Meyer-Lindenberg
Apr 20, 2019·Frontiers in Genetics·Jiajie PengXuequn Shang
Jun 28, 2019·Frontiers in Neurorobotics·Xiaofen XingXiangmin Xu
Oct 12, 2019·Journal of Translational Medicine·Yuanyuan YaoMin Yan
Aug 3, 2019·The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America·Martin Cooke, María Luisa García Lecumberri
Jan 23, 2020·Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing·Sheng HuangQiu Chen
Dec 20, 2019·Nature Communications·Yoichiro YamamotoGo Kimura
Dec 5, 2019·Scientific Reports·Jakob JordanTom Tetzlaff
Apr 29, 2020·PLoS Computational Biology·Karren Dai YangCaroline Uhler
Mar 21, 2020·Molecular Diversity·Seyed Aghil HooshmandAli Masoudi-Nejad
Feb 18, 2020·Frontiers in Pharmacology·Yiwei WangShengyong Yang
Apr 24, 2020·Eye and Vision·Yan TongYin Shen
May 7, 2020·PloS One·Teeratorn KadeethumHamidreza M Nick
Jul 9, 2020·Physical Review Letters·Tianqi Hou, Haiping Huang
Aug 28, 2020·Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology·Ying LiangYinglong Wang
Jul 30, 2020·Scientific Reports·Duong VuGerard Verkley
Mar 23, 2017·Frontiers in Neuroscience·Rifai ChaiHung T Nguyen
May 17, 2017·Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences·Xiumin LiFangzheng Xue
Nov 5, 2017·Scientific Reports·Laiyi Fu, Qinke Peng
Jul 14, 2017·Frontiers in Neuroscience·Evangelos StromatiasBernabé Linares-Barranco
Feb 20, 2018·Human Brain Mapping·Xintao HuTianming Liu
Sep 28, 2017·Physical Review. E·Domingos S P Salazar
May 18, 2018·International Journal of Neural Systems·Chengcheng HuaSyed Madiha Khalid
Apr 21, 2018·Sensors·Tsubasa MinematsuRin-Ichiro Taniguchi
Nov 9, 2017·Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging·Yong XueHanwei Chen
Jun 3, 2018·Chaos·Paolo Massimo BuscemaGuido Ferilli
May 22, 2018·Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience·Gang HuLiangliang Liu
Aug 29, 2018·Scientific Reports·Ilida SuleymanovaPeter Horvath
Apr 25, 2018·BioMed Research International·Qinghua HuangXuelong Li
Aug 2, 2018·BMC Bioinformatics·Antonino FiannacaAlfonso Urso
Jan 31, 2019·Scientific Reports·Hassan AkbariNima Mesgarani
Jan 25, 2019·Nature Communications·Gökcen EraslanFabian J Theis
Oct 24, 2018·Biological cybernetics·Kai Ueltzhöffer
Sep 27, 2018·Physical Review. E·Dongkyu Kim, Dong-Hee Kim
Dec 16, 2018·Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing·Tien Tuan Dao
Nov 25, 2018·Optics Express·James A Grant-JacobBen Mills
Apr 12, 2019·Frontiers in Genetics·Binhua TangAsif Khateeb
May 19, 2019·Sensors·Kai YangXueqiong Li
Aug 21, 2019·Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience·Jakob JordanAbigail Morrison
Mar 31, 2019·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Dmitry Krotov, John J Hopfield
Nov 26, 2019·BMC Bioinformatics·Xianglei ZhuZhenyu Liao
Dec 13, 2019·BMC Bioinformatics·Martin PalazzoPatricio Yankilevich
Apr 24, 2020·The Journal of Chemical Physics·Shweta Jindal, Satya S Bulusu
Feb 1, 2020·Physical Review Letters·Elena AgliariAlberto Fachechi
Dec 20, 2019·Biomedical Optics Express·Bingliang HuQuan Wang
Apr 3, 2020·Scientific Reports·Feng WangChristoph T Koch
Jun 17, 2020·Water Science and Technology : a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research·Chen XinHongbin Liu
Jul 8, 2020·Sensors·Antonio MoránManuel Domínguez
Mar 8, 2020·Molecules : a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry·Fardina Fathmiul AlamAmarda Shehu
Aug 1, 2020·Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences·Gennady M VerkhivkerPeng Tao
Sep 24, 2020·Pharmaceuticals·Mattia BernettiMatteo Masetti
Jul 19, 2020·Optics Express·Xu MaGonzalo R Arce
Jul 22, 2020·Physical Review. E·Alec J Linot, Michael D Graham
Sep 20, 2020·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Ori MaozElad Schneidman
Sep 19, 2020·Journal of Extracellular Vesicles·Jan KranichThomas Brocker
Mar 2, 2017·Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing·Nuh Hatipoglu, Gokhan Bilgin
Jun 11, 2017·Human Mutation·Laksshman SundaramXiaolin Li
Dec 15, 2015·Physical Review. E, Statistical, Nonlinear, and Soft Matter Physics·Xiaozhu ZhangSarah Hallerberg
Nov 20, 2016·Cognitive Science·Dawn ChenKeith J Holyoak
Feb 18, 2017·Frontiers in Psychology·Rufin VanRullen
Jan 7, 2017·Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision·G GopakumarGorthi R K Sai Subrahmanyam
Apr 6, 2017·Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience·Alberto TestolinMarco Zorzi
Sep 29, 2017·Optics Letters·Kanami IkedaEriko Watanabe
Jul 28, 2017·Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience·Qiulei DongZhanyi Hu
Mar 9, 2017·Frontiers in Psychology·András Lőrincz, András Sárkány
Feb 3, 2017·The Review of Scientific Instruments·Jun-Bao Li, Jeng-Shyang Pan
Apr 13, 2017·Scientific Reports·Daniel StoeckleinBaskar Ganapathysubramanian
Jun 2, 2018·BMC Bioinformatics·Yifeng LiWyeth W Wasserman
Apr 18, 2018·Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging·Hongyoon Choi
Dec 24, 2018·Genetics, Selection, Evolution : GSE·Patrik Waldmann
Jun 20, 2018·Sensors·Niccolò MoraPaolo Ciampolini
Jun 29, 2018·Bioinformatics·Ruochi ZhangJian Ma
Jul 2, 2018·The Journal of Chemical Physics·Christoph Wehmeyer, Frank Noé
Aug 19, 2018·Optics Express·Ben MillsRobert W Eason
Nov 23, 2018·BMC Systems Biology·Ye YuanAidong Zhang