Reduction of Pavlovian Bias in Schizophrenia: Enhanced Effects in Clozapine-Administered Patients

PloS One
Matthew A AlbrechtJames M Gold

Abstract

The negative symptoms of schizophrenia (SZ) are associated with a pattern of reinforcement learning (RL) deficits likely related to degraded representations of reward values. However, the RL tasks used to date have required active responses to both reward and punishing stimuli. Pavlovian biases have been shown to affect performance on these tasks through invigoration of action to reward and inhibition of action to punishment, and may be partially responsible for the effects found in patients. Forty-five patients with schizophrenia and 30 demographically-matched controls completed a four-stimulus reinforcement learning task that crossed action ("Go" or "NoGo") and the valence of the optimal outcome (reward or punishment-avoidance), such that all combinations of action and outcome valence were tested. Behaviour was modelled using a six-parameter RL model and EEG was simultaneously recorded. Patients demonstrated a reduction in Pavlovian performance bias that was evident in a reduced Go bias across the full group. In a subset of patients administered clozapine, the reduction in Pavlovian bias was enhanced. The reduction in Pavlovian bias in SZ patients was accompanied by feedback processing differences at the time of the P3a compo...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Electroencephalography
Schizophrenia
Clozapine
Lentiform Nucleus Structure
Conditioning, Classical
Psychological Reinforcement
RTN4 wt Allele
RTN4 gene
Metabolic Inhibition
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