Reentrant Phase Transitions and Non-Equilibrium Dynamics in Membraneless Organelles

Biochemistry
Anthony N Milin, Ashok A Deniz

Abstract

Compartmentalization of biochemical components, interactions, and reactions is critical for the function of cells. While intracellular partitioning of molecules via membranes has been extensively studied, there has been an expanding focus in recent years on the critical cellular roles and biophysical mechanisms of action of membraneless organelles (MLOs) such as the nucleolus. In this context, a substantial body of recent work has demonstrated that liquid-liquid phase separation plays a key role in MLO formation. However, less is known about MLO dissociation, with phosphorylation being the primary mechanism demonstrated thus far. In this Perspective, we focus on another mechanism for MLO dissociation that has been described in recent work, namely a reentrant phase transition (RPT). This concept, which emerges from the polymer physics field, provides a mechanistic basis for both formation and dissolution of MLOs by monotonic tuning of RNA concentration, which is an outcome of cellular processes such as transcription. Furthermore, the RPT model also predicts the formation of dynamic substructures (vacuoles) of the kind that have been observed in cellular MLOs. We end with a discussion of future directions in terms of open questio...Continue Reading

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