Reflections on the interaction of the mind and brain

Progress in Neurobiology
Benjamin Libet

Abstract

Problems associated with the topic of the mind-brain interaction are reviewed and analyzed. If there is an interaction, then the "mind" and "brain" are independent variables; the mind represents subjective experience and is therefore a non-physical phenomenon. This fact led to the need for a field theory, termed here the "cerebral mental field" (CMF). By definition, the CMF is a system property produced by the appropriate activities of billions of neurons. An experimental test of this theory is possible and a test design is presented. The most direct experimental evidence has been obtained by use of intracranial stimulating and recording electrodes. Important information has also been developed, however, with extracranial imaging techniques. These can be very fast (in ms), but the cerebral neuronal events that produce changes in physiological properties require a time delay for their processing. A number of surprising time factors affecting the appearance of a subjective somatosensory experience are described, and their wider implications are discussed. Among these is a delay (up to 0.5 s) in the generation of a sensory awareness. Thus, unconscious cerebral processes precede a subjective sensory experience. If this can be gener...Continue Reading

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Citations

Jan 12, 2007·Experimental Brain Research·Satoshi ShibuyaShigeru Kitazawa
Nov 26, 2009·Journal of Integrative Neuroscience·Roman R Poznanski
Jul 1, 2010·Journal of Integrative Neuroscience·Edwin R Lewis, Ronald J Macgregor
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Sep 21, 2010·The Journal of the American Academy of Psychoanalysis and Dynamic Psychiatry·Siegfried Zepf
Jan 1, 2013·ISRN Neuroscience·Giorgio A Ascoli
Dec 3, 2014·International Journal of Psychophysiology : Official Journal of the International Organization of Psychophysiology·Aleksandar KalauziTijana Bojić
Jul 26, 2011·Brain Research·Douglas G Stuart, Robert M Brownstone
Apr 25, 2006·Progress in Neurobiology·Douglas G Stuart, Patricia A Pierce
May 2, 2006·Progress in Neurobiology·Robert E Burke
May 3, 2006·Progress in Neurobiology·William D Willis
May 2, 2006·Progress in Neurobiology·Jonathan R Wolpaw, Jonathan S Carp
Oct 7, 2015·Frontiers in Psychology·Petr Bob, Olga Louchakova
Jun 3, 2008·Journal of Theoretical Biology·Steven Bodovitz
Aug 4, 2016·European Journal of Sport Science·Patrick FargierRaphaël Massarelli
Sep 16, 2016·Frontiers in Psychology·Wangbing ShenJing Luo
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Sep 18, 2013·Substance Use & Misuse·Richard Schaub
Apr 12, 2019·Frontiers in Psychology·Patrick Jones
Mar 11, 2017·Neuroscience of Consciousness·Tore Nielsen
May 12, 2020·Frontiers in Psychology·Dalena van Heugten-van der Kloet, Steven Jay Lynn
Jul 25, 2017·Frontiers in Psychology·Tuomas K Pernu
Nov 17, 2020·Frontiers in Psychology·Tuomas K Pernu, Nadine Elzein
Dec 8, 2020·Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine : ECAM·Shi-Yi QiZhi-Xin Wang
Aug 28, 2021·Brain Sciences·Alicja Różyk-MyrtaMałgorzata Muc-Wierzgoń

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