Regulation of expression and intracellular distribution of calreticulin, a major calcium binding protein of nonmuscle cells

Journal of Cellular Physiology
M OpasM Michalak


In the present study we have demonstrated the presence of calreticulin, a major Ca(2+)-sequestering protein of nonmuscle cells, in a variety of cell types in tissue culture. The protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum in most cell types and also to the nuclear envelope or nucleoli-like structures in some cell types. Calreticulin is enriched in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a possible involvement in protein synthesis. Calreticulin terminates with the KDEL-COOH sequence, which is likely responsible for its endoplasmic reticulum localization. Unlike some other KDEL proteins, calreticulin expression is neither heat-shock nor Ca(2+)-shock dependent. Using a variety of metabolic inhibitors, we have shown that the pool of calreticulin in L6 cells has a relatively slow turnover and a stable intracellular distribution. In proliferating muscle cells in culture (both L6 and human skeletal muscle) calreticulin is present in the endoplasmic reticulum, and additional intranuclear staining is observed. When fusion of the L6 cells is inhibited with either a high serum concentration or TGF-beta or TPA, the nucleolar staining by anticalreticulin antibodies is diminished, although the presence of calreticulin in the endoplasm...Continue Reading


Jan 1, 1976·Canadian Journal of Biochemistry·G JackowskiC C Liew
Sep 1, 1979·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·H TowbinJ Gordon
Apr 7, 1977·Nature·R CohenH Holtzer
Nov 8, 1990·Nature·M J Lewis, H R Pelham
May 1, 1990·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·D P McCauliffeM Reichlin
Jan 1, 1989·Methods in Cell Biology·M Terasaki
Jan 1, 1989·Annual Review of Cell Biology·H R Pelham
Dec 1, 1988·Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology·C Brodie, S R Sampson
Nov 1, 1986·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·J MassaguéB Nadal-Ginard
May 1, 1988·Journal of Cellular Physiology·J R Florini, D Z Ewton
Feb 1, 1988·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·P VolpeD P Lew
Jan 1, 1988·Molecular and Cellular Biology·S S Watowich, R I Morimoto
Oct 1, 1986·The Journal of Cell Biology·M TerasakiK Fujiwara


Jul 1, 1997·Journal of Cellular Biochemistry·S M JethmalaniS Y Wang
Jun 15, 1994·Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry·P D NashM Michalak
Dec 1, 1996·Glycoconjugate Journal·L NavazioJ F Vliegenthart
Feb 9, 2013·Pathology Oncology Research : POR·Mohammadreza ZamanianRozita Rosli
Mar 1, 1996·Molecular Immunology·T O NguyenR D Sontheimer
Apr 1, 1995·Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology·M C HugginsN A Moloney
Jan 8, 1999·Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology·N TsujiR Chandrashekar
Oct 26, 1999·Brain Research. Molecular Brain Research·G XiaoR J Johnson
Apr 18, 2001·Trends in Cell Biology·S JohnsonP Eggleton
Nov 24, 1999·The Biochemical Journal·M MichalakM Opas
May 12, 2000·European Journal of Biochemistry·C S JørgensenG Houen
Jan 25, 2012·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Raed HananiaRene E Harrison
Nov 17, 2012·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Weiya Jiang, Joseph L Napoli
Dec 1, 1995·The Journal of Cell Biology·R St-ArnaudS Dedhar
Dec 1, 1996·The Journal of Cell Biology·M OpasM Michalak
Oct 12, 2013·Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy·Wei WuChaoqi Liu
Jul 26, 2013·Alcohol and Alcoholism : International Journal of the Medical Council on Alcoholism·Linda L CassidyCynthia A Dlugos
May 23, 2009·Human Reproduction·Tanu ParmarGeetanjali Sachdeva
Aug 25, 1995·Nucleic Acids Research·D G WheelerG N Hendy
Nov 23, 2006·BMC Developmental Biology·Mira D LozykM Opas
Jul 9, 2008·The Journal of Cell Biology·Eva SzaboM Opas
Aug 23, 2000·The Journal of Cell Biology·K NakamuraM Michalak
Oct 13, 2001·Molecular Reproduction and Development·R J Muñoz-GoteraA Mújica
Apr 22, 2003·Journal of Cellular Biochemistry·Gisela BrünagelRobert H Getzenberg
Jan 14, 2010·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·Yaling HuYong Xie
Aug 1, 1992·Protein Expression and Purification·S BakshM Michalak
Dec 7, 2006·Cellular & Molecular Biology Letters·M Opas, M P Fadel
Jun 25, 2013·Fish & Shellfish Immunology·Xuemei LiuShicui Zhang
Jan 1, 1994·Cell Motility and the Cytoskeleton·S KoyabuT Yoshida
Nov 10, 2007·Microscopy Research and Technique·Y Q GuanM Opas
Mar 29, 2007·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Sylvia PappM Opas
Apr 18, 2000·Biotechnic & Histochemistry : Official Publication of the Biological Stain Commission·M Opas
Feb 10, 2004·American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology·Ashwani Khanna
Jun 6, 1998·Cardiovascular Research·G Hasenfuss
May 23, 2001·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·M P FadelM Opas
Nov 15, 1996·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·M MichalakM Opas
Jul 14, 1995·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·E M ConwayM Michalak
Dec 8, 2019·Journal of Experimental Botany·Charlotte Pain, Verena Kriechbaumer
Aug 15, 1996·The Journal of Experimental Zoology·S YamamotoM Nakamura
Oct 12, 1999·The American Journal of Physiology·J M PatelE R Block
Jul 7, 1995·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·T K WhiteM L Tanzer
Jul 29, 2016·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·William C ValinskyAlvin Shrier

Related Concepts

Calcium-Binding Proteins
Cell Differentiation Process
Cell Division Phases
Cell Nucleolus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Nuclear Envelope
Protein Conformation
Protein Biosynthesis

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within the membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease in genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research on Alzheimer's disease and MS4A.

Pediculosis pubis

Pediculosis pubis is a disease caused by a parasitic insect known as Pthirus pubis, which infests human pubic hair, as well as other areas with hair including eye lashes. Here is the latest research.

Rh Isoimmunization

Rh isoimmunization is a potentially preventable condition that occasionally is associated with significant perinatal morbidity or mortality. Discover the latest research on Rh Isoimmunization here.

Genetic Screens in iPSC-derived Brain Cells

Genetic screening is a critical tool that can be employed to define and understand gene function and interaction. This feed focuses on genetic screens conducted using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain cells. It also follows CRISPR-Cas9 approaches to generating genetic mutants as a means of understanding the effect of genetics on phenotype.

Enzyme Evolution

This feed focuses on molecular models of enzyme evolution and new approaches (such as adaptive laboratory evolution) to metabolic engineering of microorganisms. Here is the latest research.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Pharmacology of Proteinopathies

This feed focuses on the pharmacology of proteinopathies - diseases in which proteins abnormally aggregate (i.e. Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, etc.). Discover the latest research in this field with this feed.

Alignment-free Sequence Analysis Tools

Alignment-free sequence analyses have been applied to problems ranging from whole-genome phylogeny to the classification of protein families, identification of horizontally transferred genes, and detection of recombined sequences. Here is the latest research.