Regulation of expression and intracellular distribution of calreticulin, a major calcium binding protein of nonmuscle cells

Journal of Cellular Physiology
M OpasM Michalak

Abstract

In the present study we have demonstrated the presence of calreticulin, a major Ca(2+)-sequestering protein of nonmuscle cells, in a variety of cell types in tissue culture. The protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum in most cell types and also to the nuclear envelope or nucleoli-like structures in some cell types. Calreticulin is enriched in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, suggesting a possible involvement in protein synthesis. Calreticulin terminates with the KDEL-COOH sequence, which is likely responsible for its endoplasmic reticulum localization. Unlike some other KDEL proteins, calreticulin expression is neither heat-shock nor Ca(2+)-shock dependent. Using a variety of metabolic inhibitors, we have shown that the pool of calreticulin in L6 cells has a relatively slow turnover and a stable intracellular distribution. In proliferating muscle cells in culture (both L6 and human skeletal muscle) calreticulin is present in the endoplasmic reticulum, and additional intranuclear staining is observed. When fusion of the L6 cells is inhibited with either a high serum concentration or TGF-beta or TPA, the nucleolar staining by anticalreticulin antibodies is diminished, although the presence of calreticulin in the endoplasm...Continue Reading

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Related Concepts

Calcium
Calcium-Binding Proteins
Cell Differentiation Process
Cell Division Phases
Cell Nucleolus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
Muscle
Nuclear Envelope
Protein Conformation
Protein Biosynthesis

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