PMID: 7932447Jun 1, 1994Paper

Regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor production by human articular chondrocytes. Induction by both tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1, downregulation by transforming growth factor beta and upregulation by fibroblast growth factor

The Journal of Rheumatology
S AlsalamehG R Burmester


To study the regulation of granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) production by human articular chondrocytes which may contribute to the local GM-CSF production encountered in rheumatoid joints. This growth factor induces human macrophages to migrate and proliferate, improves their accessory function and increases the expression of HLA-DR antigens on macrophages and macrophage-like synoviocytes. GM-CSF was assayed by ELISA and a bioassay in cell and organ culture supernatants from human articular chondrocytes, by in situ hybridization, Northern blot analysis and affinity chromatography. Both interleukin 1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) synergistically or additively stimulated chondrocytes to produce significant amounts of immunoreactive and bioactive GM-CSF with maximum values of 2928 pg/ml (p < 0.0001 both for IL-1 and/or TNF-alpha vs baseline). Affinity chromatography using specific monoclonal antibodies for human GM-CSF resulted in the purification of a chondrocyte derived 22-23 kDa protein. In situ hybridization demonstrated that the number of chondrocytes that expressed GM-CSF mRNA correlated well to the amount of GM-CSF secreted into the cultures. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF...Continue Reading

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