Sep 24, 2019

Regulation of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation by glucose-alanine cycling during starvation in humans

The Journal of Clinical Investigation
Kitt Falk PetersenGerald I Shulman

Abstract

In order to determine whether the glucose-alanine cycle regulates rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation in humans, we applied positional isotopomer NMR tracer analysis (PINTA) to assess rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation and pyruvate carboxylase flux in healthy volunteers following both an overnight (12 hours) and a 60-hour fast. Following the 60-hour fast, rates of endogenous glucose production and mitochondrial oxidation decreased, whereas rates of hepatic pyruvate carboxylase flux remained unchanged. These reductions were associated with reduced rates of alanine turnover, assessed by [3-13C]alanine, in a subgroup of participants under similar fasting conditions. In order to determine whether this reduction in alanine turnover was responsible for the reduced rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation, we infused unlabeled alanine into another subgroup of 60-hour fasted subjects to increase rates of alanine turnover, similar to what was measured after a 12-hour fast, and found that this perturbation increased rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that 60 hours of starvation induce marked reductions in rates of hepatic mitochondrial oxidation, which in turn can be attributed ...Continue Reading

  • References
  • Citations2

References

  • We're still populating references for this paper, please check back later.
  • References
  • Citations2

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Study
Mitochondrial Inheritance
Regulation of Biological Process
Participant
Analysis
Pyruvate Carboxylase
Subgroup
Healthy Volunteers
Tracer
Response to Starvation

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.