The number, diversity and significance of peptides as regulators of cellular differentiation, growth, development and defence of plants has long been underestimated. Peptides have now emerged as an important class of signals for cell-to-cell communication over short distances, and also for long-range signalling. We refer to these signalling molecules as peptide growth factors and peptide hormones, respectively. As compared to remarkable progress with respect to the mechanisms of peptide perception and signal transduction, the biogenesis of signalling peptides is still in its infancy. This review focuses on the biogenesis and activity of small post-translationally modified peptides. These peptides are derived from inactive pre-pro-peptides of approximately 70-120 amino acids. Multiple post-translational modifications (PTMs) may be required for peptide maturation and activation, including proteolytic processing, tyrosine sulfation, proline hydroxylation and hydroxyproline glycosylation. While many of the enzymes responsible for these modifications have been identified, their impact on peptide activity and signalling is not fully understood. These PTMs may or may not be required for bioactivity, they may inactivate the peptide or ...Continue Reading
Identification of a 50-kDa systemin-binding protein in tomato plasma membranes having Kex2p-like properties
Phytosulfokine, sulfated peptides that induce the proliferation of single mesophyll cells of Asparagus officinalis L
Active fragments and analogs of the plant growth factor, phytosulfokine: structure-activity relationships
Prosystemin from potato, black nightshade, and bell pepper: primary structure and biological activity of predicted systemin polypeptides
Characterization of specific binding sites for a mitogenic sulfated peptide, phytosulfokine-alpha, in the plasma-membrane fraction derived from Oryza sativa L
Leucine aminopeptidase RNAs, proteins, and activities increase in response to water deficit, salinity, and the wound signals systemin, methyl jasmonate, and abscisic acid
LeSBT1, a subtilase from tomato plants. Overexpression in insect cells, purification, and characterization
Specificity of the wound-induced leucine aminopeptidase (LAP-A) of tomato activity on dipeptide and tripeptide substrates
Cloning and characterization of a low molecular weight prolyl 4-hydroxylase from Arabidopsis thaliana. Effective hydroxylation of proline-rich, collagen-like, and hypoxia-inducible transcription factor alpha-like peptides
The systemin receptor SR160 from Lycopersicon peruvianum is a member of the LRR receptor kinase family
Deficiencies in pro-thyrotropin-releasing hormone processing and abnormalities in thermoregulation in Cpefat/fat mice
Loss of CLE40, a protein functionally equivalent to the stem cell restricting signal CLV3, enhances root waving in Arabidopsis
Systemic signaling in tomato plants for defense against herbivores. Isolation and characterization of three novel defense-signaling glycopeptide hormones coded in a single precursor gene
Generation of systemin signaling in tobacco by transformation with the tomato systemin receptor kinase gene
Root-specific CLE19 overexpression and the sol1/2 suppressors implicate a CLV-like pathway in the control of Arabidopsis root meristem maintenance
Inflorescence deficient in abscission controls floral organ abscission in Arabidopsis and identifies a novel family of putative ligands in plants
Type II metacaspases Atmc4 and Atmc9 of Arabidopsis thaliana cleave substrates after arginine and lysine.
Characterization of a second Arabidopsis thaliana prolyl 4-hydroxylase with distinct substrate specificity.
The 14-amino acid CLV3, CLE19, and CLE40 peptides trigger consumption of the root meristem in Arabidopsis through a CLAVATA2-dependent pathway
Inferring hypotheses on functional relationships of genes: Analysis of the Arabidopsis thaliana subtilase gene family
The CLAVATA1-related BAM1, BAM2 and BAM3 receptor kinase-like proteins are required for meristem function in Arabidopsis
Identification and functional characterization of phytosulfokine receptor using a ligand-based approach
Tomato BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE1 is required for systemin-induced root elongation in Solanum pimpinellifolium but is not essential for wound signaling
PXY, a receptor-like kinase essential for maintaining polarity during plant vascular-tissue development
Salt stress responses in Arabidopsis utilize a signal transduction pathway related to endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling
An endoplasmic reticulum stress response in Arabidopsis is mediated by proteolytic processing and nuclear relocation of a membrane-associated transcription factor, bZIP28
Six peptide wound signals derived from a single precursor protein in Ipomoea batatas leaves activate the expression of the defense gene sporamin
Identification of a biologically active, small, secreted peptide in Arabidopsis by in silico gene screening, followed by LC-MS-based structure analysis
The receptor kinase CORYNE of Arabidopsis transmits the stem cell-limiting signal CLAVATA3 independently of CLAVATA1
A cytoplasmic Ca2+ functional assay for identifying and purifying endogenous cell signaling peptides in Arabidopsis seedlings: identification of AtRALF1 peptide
Proteolytic processing of a precursor protein for a growth-promoting peptide by a subtilisin serine protease in Arabidopsis
The EPIP peptide of INFLORESCENCE DEFICIENT IN ABSCISSION is sufficient to induce abscission in arabidopsis through the receptor-like kinases HAESA and HAESA-LIKE2
A conserved dibasic site is essential for correct processing of the peptide hormone AtRALF1 in Arabidopsis thaliana
Evidence for the Existence in Arabidopsis thaliana of the Proteasome Proteolytic Pathway: ACTIVATION IN RESPONSE TO CADMIUM
Border sequences of Medicago truncatula CLE36 are specifically cleaved by endoproteases common to the extracellular fluids of Medicago and soybean
Phytosulfokine-α controls hypocotyl length and cell expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana through phytosulfokine receptor 1
CLE-like (CLEL) peptides control the pattern of root growth and lateral root development in Arabidopsis
The tyrosine-sulfated peptide receptors PSKR1 and PSY1R modify the immunity of Arabidopsis to biotrophic and necrotrophic pathogens in an antagonistic manner
Moderation of Arabidopsis root stemness by CLAVATA1 and ARABIDOPSIS CRINKLY4 receptor kinase complexes
Suppression of Arabidopsis protophloem differentiation and root meristem growth by CLE45 requires the receptor-like kinase BAM3
The CEP family in land plants: evolutionary analyses, expression studies, and role in Arabidopsis shoot development
CEP genes regulate root and shoot development in response to environmental cues and are specific to seed plants
A secreted peptide acts on BIN2-mediated phosphorylation of ARFs to potentiate auxin response during lateral root development
Phytosulfokine peptide signaling controls pollen tube growth and funicular pollen tube guidance in Arabidopsis thaliana
Diversification of the C-TERMINALLY ENCODED PEPTIDE (CEP) gene family in angiosperms, and evolution of plant-family specific CEP genes
Novel MtCEP1 peptides produced in vivo differentially regulate root development in Medicago truncatula
Phytosulfokine Regulates Growth in Arabidopsis through a Response Module at the Plasma Membrane That Includes CYCLIC NUCLEOTIDE-GATED CHANNEL17, H+-ATPase, and BAK1
Expanding the repertoire of secretory peptides controlling root development with comparative genome analysis and functional assays
Identification of three LRR-RKs involved in perception of root meristem growth factor in Arabidopsis
Crystal structure of PXY-TDIF complex reveals a conserved recognition mechanism among CLE peptide-receptor pairs
Signature motif-guided identification of receptors for peptide hormones essential for root meristem growth
RGF1 INSENSITIVE 1 to 5, a group of LRR receptor-like kinases, are essential for the perception of root meristem growth factor 1 in Arabidopsis thaliana
Different Pathways Act Downstream of the CEP Peptide Receptor CRA2 to Regulate Lateral Root and Nodule Development
Functional Characterization of Propeptides in Plant Subtilases as Intramolecular Chaperones and Inhibitors of the Mature Protease.
A Comprehensive Analysis of RALF Proteins in Green Plants Suggests There Are Two Distinct Functional Groups
A novel subtilase inhibitor in plants shows structural and functional similarities to protease propeptides.
Differential CLE peptide perception by plant receptors implicated from structural and functional analyses of TDIF-TDR interactions
ROOT DETERMINED NODULATION1 Is Required for M. truncatula CLE12, But Not CLE13, Peptide Signaling through the SUNN Receptor Kinase
Diverse Peptide Hormones Affecting Root Growth Identified in the Medicago truncatula Secreted Peptidome.
CLE peptide tri-arabinosylation and peptide domain sequence composition are essential for SUNN-dependent autoregulation of nodulation in Medicago truncatula
A Plant Phytosulfokine Peptide Initiates Auxin-Dependent Immunity through Cytosolic Ca2+ Signaling in Tomato
CEP peptide hormones: key players in orchestrating nitrogen-demand signalling, root nodulation, and lateral root development
The tomato subtilase family includes several cell death-related proteinases with caspase specificity
Plant Leucine-Rich Repeat Receptor Kinase (LRR-RK): Structure, Ligand Perception, and Activation Mechanism
The biogenesis of CLEL peptides involves several processing events in consecutive compartments of the secretory pathway.
Identification of ex vivo catabolites of peptides with doping potential in equine plasma by HILIC-HRMS.
Phytosulfokine (PSK) precursor processing by subtilase SBT3.8 and PSK signaling improve drought stress tolerance in Arabidopsis.
Identification of Ipomoea batatas anti-cancer peptide (IbACP)-responsive genes in sweet potato leaves.
Estimating the number of protein molecules in a plant cell: protein and amino acid homeostasis during drought.
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