Regulation of the Drosophila protein timeless suggests a mechanism for resetting the circadian clock by light
Circadian behavioral rhythms in Drosophila depend on the appropriate regulation of at least two genes, period (per) and timeless (tim). Previous studies demonstrated that levels of PER and TIM RNA cycle with the same phase and that the PER and TIM proteins interact directly. Here we show the cyclic expression of TIM protein in adult heads and report that it lags behind peak levels of TIM RNA by several hours. We alsoshow that nuclear expression of TIM depends upon the expression of PER protein. Finally, we report that the expression of TIM, but not PER, is rapidly reduced by light, suggesting that TIM mediates light-induced resetting of the circadian clock. Since both PER and TIM RNA are unaffected by light treatment, the effects of light on TIM appear to be posttranscriptional.
Antibodies to the period gene product of Drosophila reveal diverse tissue distribution and rhythmic changes in the visual system
Rhythmic expression of timeless: a basis for promoting circadian cycles in period gene autoregulation
Isolation of timeless by PER protein interaction: defective interaction between timeless protein and long-period mutant PERL
Light-induced resetting of a circadian clock is mediated by a rapid increase in frequency transcript
Circadian rhythms in Drosophila can be driven by period expression in a restricted group of central brain cells
The period clock gene is expressed in central nervous system neurons which also produce a neuropeptide that reveals the projections of circadian pacemaker cells within the brain of Drosophila melanogaster
Temporally regulated nuclear entry of the Drosophila period protein contributes to the circadian clock
Analysis of period mRNA cycling in Drosophila head and body tissues indicates that body oscillators behave differently from head oscillators.
Altered circadian pacemaker functions and cyclic AMP rhythms in the Drosophila learning mutant dunce
Cloning of a structural and functional homolog of the circadian clock gene period from the giant silkmoth Antheraea pernyi
A promoterless period gene mediates behavioral rhythmicity and cyclical per expression in a restricted subset of the Drosophila nervous system
Pigment-dispersing hormone-like peptide in the nervous system of the flies Phormia and Drosophila: immunocytochemistry and partial characterization
Neuroanatomy of cells expressing clock genes in Drosophila: transgenic manipulation of the period and timeless genes to mark the perikarya of circadian pacemaker neurons and their projections
Regulation of a specific circadian clock output pathway by lark, a putative RNA-binding protein with repressor activity
Disruption of synaptic transmission or clock-gene-product oscillations in circadian pacemaker cells of Drosophila cause abnormal behavioral rhythms
Anatomy and physiology of neurons with processes in the accessory medulla of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae
Persistence of oviposition rhythm in individuals of Drosophila melanogaster reared in an aperiodic environment for several hundred generations
Development of pigment-dispersing hormone-immunoreactive neurons in the American lobster: homology to the insect circadian pacemaker system?
PER/TIM-mediated amplification, gene dosage effects and temperature compensation in an interlocking-feedback loop model of the Drosophila circadian clock
Pigment-dispersing factor sets the night state of the medulla bilateral neurons in the optic lobe of the cricket, Gryllus bimaculatus
Restoration of circadian behavioural rhythms in a period null Drosophila mutant (per01) by mammalian period homologues mPer1 and mPer2
Comparison of chromosomal DNA composing timeless in Drosophila melanogaster and D. virilis suggests a new conserved structure for the TIMELESS protein
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