Relative density of urine: methods and clinical significance

Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
M PradellaF Rigolin

Abstract

The physical properties and chemical composition of urine are highly variable and are determined in large measure by the quantity and the type of food consumed. The specific gravity is the ratio of the density to that of water, and it is dependent on the number and weight of solute particles and on the temperature of the sample. The weight of solute particles is constituted mainly of urea (73%), chloride (5.4%), sodium (5.1%), potassium (2.4%), phosphate (2.0%), uric acid (1.7%), and sulfate (1.3%). Nevertheless, urine osmolality depends only on the number of solute particles. The renal production of maximally concentrated urine and formation of dilute urine may be reduced to two basic elements: (1) generation and maintenance of a renal medullary solute concentration hypertonic to plasma and (2) a mechanism for osmotic equilibration between the inner medulla and the collecting duct fluid. The interaction of the renal medullary countercurrent system, circulating levels of antidiuretic hormone, and thirst regulates water metabolism. Renin, aldosterone, prostaglandins, and kinins also play a role. Clinical estimation of the concentrating and diluting capacity can be performed by relatively simple provocative tests. However, urinar...Continue Reading

References

Apr 1, 1978·Analytical Biochemistry·A A White, D B Karr
Jul 1, 1976·The Journal of Pediatrics·F A Karlsson, K Hellsing
Aug 1, 1979·Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry·W R Farkas, T Stanawitz
Sep 16, 1976·The New England Journal of Medicine·H L Bleich, E S Boro
Jan 1, 1977·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·G M LumK M McDonald
Aug 1, 1978·Archives of General Psychiatry·C B Nemeroff, A J Prange
Aug 1, 1977·Anesthesiology·R I Mazze
Jan 1, 1978·Annual Review of Biophysics and Bioengineering·J L Stephenson
Jan 1, 1979·Pharmacological Research Communications·E TremoliO Mantero
Jul 1, 1979·Clinical Pediatrics·P A Armelini, C F Gonzalez
Aug 4, 1979·British Medical Journal·A K ScottJ C Gilbert
Feb 1, 1979·Experimental Aging Research·H A Taub
Dec 1, 1979·Kidney International·J W RoweG L Robertson
Nov 1, 1977·Acta Radiologica: Diagnosis·L TejlerS Holtås
Jan 1, 1978·The International Journal of Biochemistry·K Al-SarrajR J Mayer
Jul 1, 1978·The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition·S G Almroth
Jul 1, 1978·Annals of Internal Medicine·T R MillerR W Schrier
Jul 1, 1978·The American Journal of Physiology·T M ButlerR E Davies
Jul 1, 1978·The American Journal of Medicine·R D SwartzP Silva
Jul 1, 1978·The American Journal of Medicine·A CarvalloG E Schreiner
Nov 4, 1978·British Medical Journal·P G KennedyB I Hoffbrand
Jun 1, 1976·Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental·A M MosesD H Streeten
Jun 23, 1977·The New England Journal of Medicine·N G LEVINSKY
Sep 1, 1977·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·T BerlR J Anderson
Jul 1, 1976·Kidney International·M Miller, A M Moses
Jan 1, 1975·Kidney International·D R Wilson
Jan 1, 1987·Critical Care Medicine·P ChansonP Loirat
Oct 1, 1987·American Journal of Clinical Pathology·H L Corwin, M H Haber
May 8, 1986·The New England Journal of Medicine·E CoganM Abramow
Oct 1, 1986·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·T YamajiJ Fujii
Nov 1, 1986·Annals of Internal Medicine·J E DonckierA E Lambert
Jul 1, 1985·British Medical Bulletin·J C Buckingham
Mar 1, 1986·The American Journal of the Medical Sciences·W L Henrich
Apr 14, 1986·Biochimica Et Biophysica Acta·J PratzB Corman
Jan 1, 1987·Annual Review of Medicine·S W Graves, G H Williams
Feb 22, 1986·British Medical Journal·M Forrest, B Andersen
May 1, 1987·American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation·R E Cronin
May 1, 1987·Journal of General Internal Medicine·R S SandlerM S Kendall
Jul 1, 1987·Annals of Clinical Biochemistry·W J Marshall, P E Mitchell
Jul 15, 1987·Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry·G M de JongC H Gips
Nov 1, 1987·Annals of Clinical Biochemistry·M D Penney, G Walters
Feb 1, 1987·Kidney International·J P Kokko
Feb 1, 1987·Kidney International·J L Stephenson
Feb 1, 1987·Kidney International·C W GOTTSCHALK
Mar 16, 1987·Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry·G M de JongC H Gips
Aug 1, 1987·American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation·R M Richardson, M L Halperin
Jun 30, 1987·Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry·S A SolimanM I Sulaiman
Sep 1, 1987·Annals of Internal Medicine·N A SnyderA I Arieff
Sep 1, 1987·American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation·D A Feinfeld, G M Danovitch
Jul 1, 1987·Archives of Disease in Childhood·S Leech, M D Penney
Jul 1, 1987·Clinical Endocrinology·D H StreetenP Woo
Jan 1, 1987·Nephron·P C Singhal, D Schlondorff
Feb 1, 1986·The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society·A J Kempster
Jun 1, 1986·The Journal of Pediatrics·F K Assadi, L Fornell
Jan 1, 1986·Endocrine Research·J R ZyskM J Cronin
Aug 14, 1986·The New England Journal of Medicine·D N HammondE Chelmicka-Schorr
Aug 1, 1986·The American Journal of Cardiology·S R GoldsmithA W Cowley
Oct 1, 1986·The American Journal of the Medical Sciences·M B GoldsteinM L Halperin
Nov 1, 1986·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·M Zouali, B D Stollar
Jun 1, 1986·Postgraduate Medical Journal·J A ShaverR Salerni
Jan 1, 1986·American Journal of Nephrology·M L Halperin, K L Skorecki
Nov 1, 1986·The Annals of Thoracic Surgery·E S YeeP A Ebert
Jan 15, 1987·The New England Journal of Medicine·D C BatlleW Schlueter
Jul 1, 1985·British Medical Bulletin·R N Barton
Aug 3, 1985·British Medical Journal·C G Fraser
May 1, 1985·Calcified Tissue International·S KakutaI M Shapiro
Apr 1, 1986·The Journal of Pediatrics·O A BenitezH M Berger
Apr 1, 1986·American Journal of Kidney Diseases : the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation·J Rodriguez-SorianoM E Norman
Feb 1, 1985·Annals of Internal Medicine·R J AndersonR W Schrier
Mar 1, 1985·The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease·W V ViewegW W Spradlin
Jan 1, 1985·International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health·L AlessioI Ghezzi
Aug 23, 1985·The American Journal of Cardiology·H T Shapiro
Jan 1, 1985·Computers in Biology and Medicine·R P TewarsonY Zhang
Jan 1, 1985·American Journal of Nephrology·P A Marsden, M L Halperin
Jan 1, 1972·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·R W SchrierR C Ufferman
Nov 1, 1973·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·A GangulyA J Dowdy
Sep 1, 1974·American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal·H B ElkinsH L Smith
Mar 1, 1973·Kidney International·S Klahr, G A Alleyne
Nov 1, 1972·Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications·M Hamberg
Oct 1, 1972·Kidney International·J P Kokko, F C Rector
Mar 1, 1973·The American Journal of Physiology·M B Burg, N Green
Mar 28, 1974·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·D BöningM Kunze
Jul 1, 1972·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·R C Ufferman, R W Schrier
Oct 1, 1972·The American Journal of Physiology·R L Jamison, F Lacy
Nov 1, 1971·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·R L JamisonF Lacy
Feb 18, 1967·British Medical Journal·A P RobertsR W Beard
Nov 1, 1970·Annals of Internal Medicine·M MillerD H Streeten
May 1, 1968·The American Journal of Medicine·T U BiberM C MacDowell
Aug 12, 1968·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·A W Haraway, E L Becker
Aug 1, 1969·Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental·W H Waugh
Sep 1, 1966·The American Journal of Physiology·G MalnicG Giebisch
Jul 4, 1981·Lancet·C T FlearJ Burn
Oct 2, 1982·Lancet·A Taylor, G Walker
Nov 20, 1982·Lancet·R A RobsonR R Bailey
Dec 11, 1982·Lancet·M S Knapp
Jan 15, 1983·Lancet·B A Elliott
Dec 18, 1982·Lancet·R L Jamison, C R Robertson
Nov 2, 1984·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·G S NicotC Leroux-Robert
Jan 1, 1984·Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences·R G Hamilton, N F Adkinson
Jul 1, 1980·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·B A JacksonT P Dousa
Oct 1, 1981·Biochemical Pharmacology·M J Peach
Apr 6, 1984·Science·S H Snyder
Feb 1, 1983·Kidney International·O S Better, R W Schrier
Dec 1, 1984·Australian and New Zealand Journal of Medicine·M P FeneleyD W Baron
Dec 1, 1983·The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy·M PapapetropoulouN J Legakis
Oct 1, 1984·The American Journal of Medicine·D M Gillum, S L Linas
Jul 1, 1984·Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism·P H Baylis, G V Gill
Nov 1, 1984·Annals of Clinical Biochemistry·E F Legg, A E Hurrell
Nov 1, 1984·Kidney International·J C Melby
Nov 1, 1984·Acta paediatrica Scandinavica·P SujovZ Hochberg
Jan 1, 1984·European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology·B NielsenF Bonde-Petersen
Sep 1, 1983·Photochemistry and Photobiology·T J Dougherty
Jan 1, 1983·Urological Research·M GhazizadehK Kurokawa
Feb 1, 1984·Clinical Biochemistry·S Y Chu, D Sparks
Apr 1, 1984·Journal of Clinical Pathology·M D ShephardC G Fraser
Feb 1, 1984·Kidney International·M UsbertiV E Andreucci
Feb 1, 1984·Kidney International·G L Robertson
Jan 1, 1984·American Journal of Nephrology·P A Abraham, W F Keane
Oct 23, 1982·British Medical Journal·A J FrewM S Knapp
Feb 1, 1983·The American Journal of Medicine·S H HouJ T Harrington
Jan 1, 1983·Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines·J A Sergeant, C A Scholten
Apr 1, 1983·Annals of Internal Medicine·A H Sklar, S L Linas
Jun 1, 1983·American Journal of Clinical Pathology·B B Kirschbaum
Nov 1, 1980·Kidney International·G H Mudge
Jan 15, 1981·The Biochemical Journal·C J KirkD A Hems
Feb 1, 1982·The American Journal of Medicine·M G Cogan
Feb 1, 1982·The American Journal of Medicine·R L Jamison, R E Oliver
Apr 1, 1982·Annals of Internal Medicine·D BichetR W Schrier
Jan 1, 1982·Annals of Clinical Biochemistry·J F Zilva
May 1, 1982·The American Journal of Medicine·J A D'EliaL A Weinrauch
Aug 1, 1982·Journal of Occupational Medicine. : Official Publication of the Industrial Medical Association·G Wallis, T Barber
Nov 1, 1982·American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal·R J Graul, R L Stanley
Jul 1, 1980·Kidney International·S L LinasR J Anderson
Jun 1, 1981·The American Journal of Medicine·N AshrafA I Arieff
Sep 1, 1981·American Journal of Diseases of Children·R A RichmanA M Moses
Jan 1, 1980·The American Journal of Medicine·R L EisenbergM W Hedgcock
Apr 1, 1980·Archives of Internal Medicine·L S FangN S Lichtenstein
Jun 1, 1980·The Journal of Trauma·R J MorganJ F Burke
Jan 1, 1980·Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology·O S BetterC Chaimovitz
Feb 12, 1981·The New England Journal of Medicine·R C Morris
Dec 1, 1980·Archives of Internal Medicine·M K HariprasadB D Nidus
Mar 1, 1981·The British Journal of Surgery·J P CochraneL P Le Quesne
May 1, 1958·The American Journal of Medicine·R W BERLINERM EDEN
Mar 1, 1963·American Journal of Clinical Pathology·M WINSTEADR L MARKEY
Mar 1, 1962·The American Journal of Medicine·A V WOLF
Mar 5, 1964·The New England Journal of Medicine·J T GALAMBOSG H REYNOLDS
Dec 1, 1950·American Journal of Physical Anthropology·J AUER
Dec 16, 1947·Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Containing Papers of a Biological Character·E B VERNEY
Sep 9, 1905·British Medical Journal·H PringleS Pringle
Apr 1, 1966·Annals of Internal Medicine·D A Ogden, J H Holmes

Citations

Jun 25, 2009·Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology·Ellen J Lee, Tye E Arbuckle
Dec 22, 2012·Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation : Official Publication of the European Dialysis and Transplant Association - European Renal Association·Luca MusanteHarry Holthofer
Jan 23, 1999·Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine : CCLM·R M Dorizzi, M Caputo
Mar 26, 2013·The Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice·Carly Anne Bloom, Jacquie S Rand
Jul 1, 1997·Kidney International·R R MooreB L Kasiske
Dec 25, 2019·Environmental Science and Pollution Research International·Jorge Alejandro Alegría-TorresDiana Rocha-Amador

Related Concepts

Mechanobiology
Body Water
Diuresis
Endocrine System Diseases
Hormones
Kidney Concentrating Ability
Kidney Diseases
Urine
Biophysical Phenomena

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Synthetic Genetic Array Analysis

Synthetic genetic arrays allow the systematic examination of genetic interactions. Here is the latest research focusing on synthetic genetic arrays and their analyses.

Congenital Hyperinsulinism

Congenital hyperinsulinism is caused by genetic mutations resulting in excess insulin secretion from beta cells of the pancreas. Here is the latest research.

Neural Activity: Imaging

Imaging of neural activity in vivo has developed rapidly recently with the advancement of fluorescence microscopy, including new applications using miniaturized microscopes (miniscopes). This feed follows the progress in this growing field.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Epigenetic Memory

Epigenetic memory refers to the heritable genetic changes that are not explained by the DNA sequence. Find the latest research on epigenetic memory here.

Cell Atlas of the Human Eye

Constructing a cell atlas of the human eye will require transcriptomic and histologic analysis over the lifespan. This understanding will aid in the study of development and disease. Find the latest research pertaining to the Cell Atlas of the Human Eye here.

Femoral Neoplasms

Femoral Neoplasms are bone tumors that arise in the femur. Discover the latest research on femoral neoplasms here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

Related Papers

American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Douglas Curran-Everett, Dale J Benos
Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry : MRC
Huaping MoDaniel Raftery
Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Dmitry Shishmarev, Gottfried Otting
Metabolomics : Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Ekaterina NevedomskayaAndré M Deelder
© 2021 Meta ULC. All rights reserved