PMID: 10392398Jul 7, 1999Paper

Removal of infected pacemaker leads with deep hypothermic circulatory arrest and open surgical exploration of the superior vena cava and innominate veins

Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE
D M FeldbaumK Ferrick


Despite the use of transvenous methods for extraction of infected leads, failed attempts may result in retained lead fragments. Retained lead fragments may be a focus of continued infection leading to sepsis. We present two patients in which conversion from cardiopulmonary bypass to hypothermic circulatory arrest allowed direct visualization, using venotomies in the superior vena cava and innominate vein to achieve complete removal of retained pacemaker lead fragments. Use of venotomies in the extracardiac venous system is a technical addition to prior descriptions of lead extraction using deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest.


Aug 1, 1979·The American Journal of Cardiology·G MorganA Leatham
Sep 1, 1981·The American Journal of Cardiology·M H ChooJ Trusty
Dec 1, 1993·Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE·R FrameJ N Gross
Jul 1, 1996·Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE·A BöhmK Zámolyi
Jan 1, 1996·Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology : PACE·E AltJ Reinhardt

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