Renal manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome
Although renal manifestations of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) have received scarce attention until recently, the kidney probably is a major target organ in APS. Thrombosis may develop at any location within renal vessels, ie, renal artery trunk or branches, intrarenal arteries or arterioles, glomerular capillaries, and renal vein. The clinical consequences consist of highly variable degrees of proteinuria; systemic hypertension ranging from mild to malignant; cortical necrosis; thrombotic microangiopathy, pregnancy-associated or not; and slowly to rapidly progressive renal failure that may require dialysis. These events occur mainly in the course of systemic lupus erythematosus or of "primary" APS. Renal involvement is a frequent feature of the catastrophic APS. A high prevalence of antiphospholipid antibodies has been reported recently in patients with end-stage renal failure, but their clinical significance remains to be determined.
Renal vein thrombosis, nephrotic syndrome, and systemic lupus erythematosus: an association in four cases
Antiphospholipid antibodies in pre-eclamptic women: relation to growth retardation and neonatal outcome
Fibromuscular dysplasia of the renal arteries associated with antiphospholipid autoantibodies: two case reports
Postpartum hemolytic uremic syndrome associated with antiphospholipid antibodies. A case report and review of the literature
Renal thrombotic microangiopathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and the antiphospholipid syndrome
Anticardiolipin antibodies and lupus anticoagulant in patients treated with different methods of renal replacement therapy in comparison to patients with systemic lupus erythematosus
Decrease in serum antiphospholipid antibody levels upon development of nephrotic syndrome in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: relationship to urinary loss of IgG and other factors
Repeated fetal losses associated with antiphospholipid antibodies: a collaborative randomized trial comparing prednisone with low-dose heparin treatment
Preliminary classification criteria for the antiphospholipid syndrome within systemic lupus erythematosus
Bilateral adrenal infarction, hypoadrenalism and splinter haemorrhages in the 'primary' antiphospholipid syndrome
Insidious loss of renal function in patients with anticardiolipin antibodies and absence of overt nephritis
Malignant hypertension and antiphospholipid antibodies as presenting features of SLE in a young woman using oral contraceptives
Hemolytic-uremic syndrome with anticardiolipin antibodies revealing paraneoplastic systemic scleroderma
High prevalence of significant heart valve lesions in patients with the 'primary' antiphospholipid syndrome
Systemic and renal fibrinolytic activity in a patient with anticardiolipin syndrome and renal thrombotic microangiopathy
Acute bilateral renal vein thrombosis superimposed on calcified thrombus of the inferior vena cava in a patient with membranous lupus nephritis
Cerebrovascular disease and antiphospholipid antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus, lupus-like disease, and the primary antiphospholipid syndrome
Primary antiphospholipid syndrome: features of patients with raised anticardiolipin antibodies and no other disorder
Accelerated hypertension associated with lupus anticoagulant and false-positive VDRL in systemic lupus erythematosus
Allograft membranous glomerulonephritis and renal-vein thrombosis in a patient with a lupus anticoagulant factor
Renal infarction associated with anti-phospholipid antibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus and "lupus-like" disease
Splenic and renal infarction in systemic lupus erythematosus: association with anti-cardiolipin antibodies
Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura syndrome in systemic lupus erythematosus: treatment with plasma infusion
Renal vein thrombosis and inferior vena cava thrombosis in systemic lupus erythematosus. Frequency and risk factors
Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Weekly clinicopathological exercises. Case 33-1998. A 29-year-old woman with necrotizing lymphadenitis, the nephrotic syndrome, and acute renal failure
Case records of the Massachusetts General Hospital. Case 2-2008. A 38-year-old woman with postpartum visual loss, shortness of breath, and renal failure
HIV infection and antiphospholipid antibody: literature review and link to the antiphospholipid syndrome
Multiple steno-obstructive vascular lesions and femoral superficial artery dissection in a young Caucasian male with antiphospholipid syndrome
Successful treatment of catastrophic antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (CAPS) associated with splenic marginal-zone lymphoma with low-molecular weight heparin, rituximab and bendamustine
An 11-year-old African-American girl with systemic lupus erythematosus and ANCA-negative renal vasculitis
Antiphospholipid antibodies are associated with an increased risk for chronic renal insufficiency in patients with lupus nephritis
Antiphospholipid syndrome nephropathy in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and antiphospholipid antibodies: prevalence, clinical associations, and long-term outcome
Acute renal failure complicating HELLP syndrome, SLE and anti-phospholipid syndrome: successful outcome using plasma exchange therapy
IgM anti-β2 glycoprotein I is protective against lupus nephritis and renal damage in systemic lupus erythematosus
A fulminant case of renal vein thrombosis in a patient with autoimmune disorder and membranous nephropathy
The use of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine for non-infectious conditions other than rheumatoid arthritis or lupus: a critical review
Executive function in pediatric bipolar disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: in search of distinct phenotypic profiles.
Intellectual functioning in adults with ADHD: a meta-analytic examination of full scale IQ differences between adults with and without ADHD
Some plasmin-induced antibodies bind to cardiolipin, display lupus anticoagulant activity and induce fetal loss in mice
1996 diagnostic and classification criteria for the antiphospholipid/cofactors syndrome: a "mission impossible'?
Autoimmune Polyendocrine Syndromes
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Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.