Residues affecting the chloride regulation and substrate selectivity of the angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE and ACE2) identified by site-directed mutagenesis

The FEBS Journal
Christopher A RushworthAnthony J Turner

Abstract

Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and its homologue angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) are critical counter-regulatory enzymes of the renin-angiotensin system, and have been implicated in cardiac function, renal disease, diabetes, atherosclerosis and acute lung injury. Both ACE and ACE2 have catalytic activity that is chloride sensitive and is caused by the presence of the CL1 and CL2 chloride-binding sites in ACE and the CL1 site in ACE2. The chloride regulation of activity is also substrate dependent. Site-directed mutagenesis was employed to elucidate which of the CL1 and CL2 site residues are responsible for chloride sensitivity. The CL1 site residues Arg186, Trp279 and Arg489 of testicular ACE and the equivalent ACE2 residues Arg169, Trp271 and Lys481 were found to be critical to chloride sensitivity. Arg522 of testicular ACE was also confirmed to be vital to the chloride regulation mediated by the CL2 site. In addition, Arg514 of ACE2 was identified as a residue critical to substrate selectivity, with the R514Q mutant, relative to the wild-type, possessing a fourfold greater selectivity for the formation of the vasodilator angiotensin-(1-7) from the vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. The enhancement of angiotensin II c...Continue Reading

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Citations

Dec 4, 2013·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Christopher J YatesK Ravi Acharya
Apr 9, 2013·Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry·Evans MenachKuniyo Inouye
Nov 29, 2011·International Journal of Hypertension·Nicola E Clarke, Anthony J Turner
Apr 16, 2016·Circulation Research·Vaibhav B PatelGavin Y Oudit
Jan 31, 2018·Scientific Reports·Fanli ZengYibin Lin
Jan 9, 2021·AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology·O RapalinoM H Lev
May 12, 2021·Proteins·Wenyang Jing, Erik Procko
Sep 2, 2021·Biosafety and Health·Rui-Ting Li, Cheng-Feng Qin

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Methods Mentioned

BETA
PCR
X‐ray
PCRs
transfection
scraping

Software Mentioned

tACE

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