Resistance and tolerance to foreign elements by prokaryotic immune systems - curating the genome.

Nature Reviews. Immunology
Gregory W Goldberg, Luciano A Marraffini

Abstract

To engage in adaptive symbioses or genetic exchange, organisms must interact with foreign, non-self elements despite the risks of predation and parasitism. By surveying the interface between self and non-self, immune systems can help ensure the benevolence of these interactions without isolating their hosts altogether. In this Essay, we examine prokaryotic restriction-modification and CRISPR-Cas (clustered, regularly interspaced palindromic repeat-CRISPR-associated proteins) activities and discuss their analogy to mammalian immune pathways. We further explain how their capacities for resistance and tolerance are optimized to reduce parasitism and immunopathology during encounters with non-self.

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Related Concepts

Immune System
Natural Immunosuppression
Genome
Evolution, Molecular
Recombination, Interspecies
Adaptive Immune Response
CRISPR-Cas Systems
Genome
Immune Tolerance
Parasitic Diseases

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