Resistance diagnostics as a public health tool to combat antibiotic resistance: A model-based evaluation

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
David McAdamsSam P Brown

Abstract

Rapid point-of-care resistance diagnostics (POC-RD) are a key tool in the fight against antibiotic resistance. By tailoring drug choice to infection genotype, doctors can improve treatment efficacy while limiting costs of inappropriate antibiotic prescription. Here we combine epidemiological theory and data to assess the potential of RD innovations in a public health context, as a means to limit or even reverse selection for antibiotic resistance. POC-RD can be used to impose a non-biological fitness cost on resistant strains, by enabling diagnostic-informed treatment and targeted interventions that reduce resistant strains’ opportunities for transmission. We assess this diagnostic-imposed fitness cost in the context of a spectrum of bacterial population biologies, and find that the expected impact varies from selection against resistance for obligate pathogens to marginal public health improvements for opportunistic pathogens with high ‘bystander’ antibiotic exposure during asymptomatic carriage (e.g. the pneumococcus). We close by generalizing the notion of RD-informed strategies to incorporate carriage surveillance information, and illustrate that coupling transmission-control interventions to the discovery of resistant stra...Continue Reading

Related Concepts

Antibiotics
Prescription Procedure
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Disease Transmission
Public Entity
Health Information
Pharmacologic Substance
Population Group
Resistance Process
Doctor's Choice

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