Respiratory disease in rhesus macaques inoculated with SARS-CoV-2.

Vincent J MunsterEmmie de Wit


An outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by a novel coronavirus (named SARS-CoV-2) and has a case fatality rate of approximately 2%, started in Wuhan (China) in December 20191,2. Following an unprecedented global spread3, the World Health Organization declared COVID-19 a pandemic on 11 March 2020. Although data on COVID-19 in humans are emerging at a steady pace, some aspects of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 can be studied in detail only in animal models, in which repeated sampling and tissue collection is possible. Here we show that SARS-CoV-2 causes a respiratory disease in rhesus macaques that lasts between 8 and 16 days. Pulmonary infiltrates, which are a hallmark of COVID-19 in humans, were visible in lung radiographs. We detected high viral loads in swabs from the nose and throat of all of the macaques, as well as in bronchoalveolar lavages; in one macaque, we observed prolonged rectal shedding. Together, the rhesus macaque recapitulates the moderate disease that has been observed in the majority of human cases of COVID-19. The establishment of the rhesus macaque as a model of COVID-19 will increase our understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease, and aid in the development and testing of...Continue Reading


Jul 1, 1994·American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine·F KrombachM Rosenbruch
May 8, 2003·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Christopher M BoothAllan S Detsky
Jun 5, 2003·Lancet·John M NichollsJ S Malik Peiris
Jul 8, 2003·The Journal of Pathology·Yanqing DingKaitai Yao
Dec 24, 2016·Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases·Neeltje van DoremalenJuergen A Richt
Jan 25, 2020·The New England Journal of Medicine·Na ZhuUNKNOWN China Novel Coronavirus Investigating and Research Team
Jan 30, 2020·Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Européen Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin·Victor M CormanChristian Drosten
Feb 8, 2020·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Dawei WangZhiyong Peng
Feb 18, 2020·Lancet·William Kyle SilversteinJerome Allen Leis
Feb 20, 2020·The New England Journal of Medicine·Lirong ZouJie Wu
Feb 23, 2020·Science·Daniel WrappJason S McLellan
Feb 23, 2020·Journal of Korean Medical Science·Jin Yong KimBum Sik Chin
Feb 23, 2020·The Lancet. Respiratory Medicine·Zhe XuFu-Sheng Wang
Feb 28, 2020·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Lan LanHaibo Xu
Feb 28, 2020·The Lancet Infectious Diseases·Heshui ShiChuansheng Zheng
Feb 29, 2020·The New England Journal of Medicine·Wei-Jie GuanUNKNOWN China Medical Treatment Expert Group for Covid-19
Mar 3, 2020·Journal of Thoracic Oncology : Official Publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer·Sufang TianShu-Yuan Xiao
Mar 10, 2020·Emerging Infectious Diseases·An TangJian-Bo Yan
Mar 12, 2020·Emerging Infectious Diseases·Jennifer HarcourtNatalie J Thornburg
Mar 20, 2020·JAMA : the Journal of the American Medical Association·Matt ArentzMelissa Lee
Mar 30, 2020·Clinical Infectious Diseases : an Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America·Juanjuan ZhaoZheng Zhang
Apr 3, 2020·Nature·Roman WölfelClemens Wendtner
Jun 27, 2020·Obstetrics and Gynecology·Ilia Bresesti, Lorella Rossi

❮ Previous
Next ❯


May 13, 2020·The Veterinary Quarterly·Ruchi TiwariAlfonso J Rodriguez-Morales
Jun 4, 2020·Pathogens·Sabari Nath Neerukonda, Upendra Katneni
Jun 11, 2020·American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology·Leigh Anne SwayneBrant E Isakson
Jul 8, 2020·Pathogens·Ahmed S Abdel-Moneim, Elsayed M Abdelwhab
Jun 10, 2020·The Journal of Immunology : Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists·Ashley L St John, Abhay P S Rathore
May 15, 2020·Nature·Sin Fun SiaHui-Ling Yen
Jun 10, 2020·Nature·Brandi N WilliamsonEmmie de Wit
Jun 28, 2020·Journal of Virology·John P Moore, P J Klasse
Jul 15, 2020·Journal of Virology·Xuesen ZhaoHanxin Lin
Sep 17, 2020·Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics·Idris Nasir AbdullahiAbdurrahman El-Fulaty Ahmad
Jul 31, 2020·Nature·Neeltje van DoremalenVincent J Munster
Sep 24, 2020·Nature·Florian Krammer
Jun 21, 2020·Modern Pathology : an Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc·Inga-Marie SchaeferLynette M Sholl
Jun 20, 2020·Euro Surveillance : Bulletin Européen Sur Les Maladies Transmissibles = European Communicable Disease Bulletin·Nadia OreshkovaArjan Stegeman
Jun 18, 2020·Molecular Medicine·Hannelore EhrenreichKamilla W Miskowiak
Sep 6, 2020·Disease Models & Mechanisms·Sarah R LeistDavid R Martinez
Sep 6, 2020·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Mangalakumari JeyanathanZhou Xing
Jul 24, 2020·Viruses·Nikolaus OsterriederJakob Trimpert
Aug 5, 2020·Science Translational Medicine·Athri D RathnayakeKyeong-Ok Chang
Aug 23, 2020·Viruses·Heyde MakimaaMegan T Baldridge
Sep 5, 2020·Nature Medicine·Lisa H TostanoskiDan H Barouch
Oct 1, 2020·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Angela M Bosco-LauthRichard A Bowen
Sep 29, 2020·Frontiers in Immunology·Inmaculada Sanclemente-AlamanUlises Gómez-Pinedo
Oct 8, 2020·Critical Care : the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum·Salleh N EhaidebAbderrezak Bouchama
Aug 28, 2020·Nature·Kenneth H DinnonRalph S Baric
Oct 11, 2020·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Suzanne J F KapteinLeen Delang
Oct 8, 2020·Nature Reviews. Microbiology·Ben HuZheng-Li Shi
Sep 24, 2020·Nature·César Muñoz-FontelaDan H Barouch
Oct 17, 2020·Inflammation and Regeneration·Masaaki Miyazawa
Oct 24, 2020·The New England Journal of Medicine·Monica Gandhi, George W Rutherford
Oct 10, 2020·Transboundary and Emerging Diseases·Wendy K JoJan Felix Drexler
Nov 10, 2020·The Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy·Kyle RosenkeDavid A Stein

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Methods Mentioned

bronchoalveolar lavages
bronchoalveolar lavage
reverse-transcription PCR
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Software Mentioned

Adobe Photoshop

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.