Jan 27, 2015

Retromer and sorting nexins in endosomal sorting

Biochemical Society Transactions
Matthew Gallon, Peter J Cullen

Abstract

The evolutionarily conserved endosomal retromer complex rescues transmembrane proteins from the lysosomal degradative pathway and facilitates their recycling to other cellular compartments. Retromer functions in conjunction with numerous associated proteins, including select members of the sorting nexin (SNX) family. In the present article, we review the molecular architecture and cellular roles of retromer and its various functional partners. The endosomal network is a crucial hub in the trafficking of proteins through the cellular endomembrane system. Transmembrane proteins, here termed cargos, enter endosomes by endocytosis from the plasma membrane or by trafficking from the trans-Golgi network (TGN). Endosomal cargo proteins face one of the two fates: retention in the endosome, leading ultimately to lysosomal degradation or export from the endosome for reuse ('recycling'). The balance of protein degradation and recycling is crucial to cellular homoeostasis; inappropriate sorting of proteins to either fate leads to cellular dysfunction. Retromer is an endosome-membrane-associated protein complex central to the recycling of many cargo proteins from endosomes, both to the TGN and the plasma membrane (and other specialized comp...Continue Reading

  • References164
  • Citations50

Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Biochemical Pathway
Endomembrane System
Lysosome Assembly Pathway
Trans-Golgi Region
Protein Degradation, Regulatory
Endocytosis
Protein Structure, Quaternary
Sorting Nexins
Protein Degradation, Metabolic
Trafficking

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