Eye movements are often influenced by expectation of reward. Using a memory-guided saccade task with an asymmetric reward schedule, we show that visual responses of monkey SC neurons increase when the visual stimulus indicates an upcoming reward. The increase occurred in two distinct manners: (1) reactively, as an increase in the gain of the visual response when the stimulus indicated an upcoming reward; (2) proactively, as an increase in anticipatory activity when reward was expected in the neuron's response field. These effects were observed mostly in saccade-related SC neurons in the deeper layer which would receive inputs from the cortical eye fields and the basal ganglia. These results, together with recent findings, suggest that the gain modulation may be determined by the inputs from both the cortical eye fields and the basal ganglia, whereas the anticipatory bias may be derived mainly from the basal ganglia.
Visual, auditory and somatosensory convergence in output neurons of the cat superior colliculus: multisensory properties of the tecto-reticulo-spinal projection
Nigral inhibitory termination on efferent neurons of the superior colliculus: an intracellular horseradish peroxidase study in the cat
Effect of expected reward magnitude on the response of neurons in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of the macaque
Thermodynamic view on decision-making process: emotions as a potential power vector of realization of the choice
New functions for an old structure: superior colliculus and head-only movements. Focus on "the role of primate superior colliculus in the control of head movements"
Functional properties of the basal ganglia's re-entrant loop architecture: selection and reinforcement
Enhanced c-Fos expression in superior colliculus, paraventricular thalamus and septum during learning of cue-reward association
A Diencephalic Dopamine Source Provides Input to the Superior Colliculus, where D1 and D2 Receptors Segregate to Distinct Functional Zones
Tectonigral projections in the primate: a pathway for pre-attentive sensory input to midbrain dopaminergic neurons
How best to consider the structure and function of the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus: evidence from animal studies
Brain developing: Influences & Outcomes
This feed focuses on influences that affect the developing brain including genetics, fetal development, prenatal care, and gene-environment interactions. Here is the latest research in this field.
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.