PMID: 591126Dec 15, 1977

Risk factors for lung cancer in Singapore Chinese, a population with high female incidence rates

International Journal of Cancer. Journal International Du Cancer
R MacLennanK Shanmugaratnam

Abstract

The high incidence of lung cancer in Chinese females in Singapore, especially among those belonging to the Cantonese dialect group, and the relatively high rates in Chinese males have been studied by means of interviews of cases and controls. A significant dose-response effect of cigarette smoking was found for all male and female groups, but neither smoking nor any other exposure explains the high incidence of lung cancer observed in Cantonese females who exhibit high rates of adenocarcinoma appraently unrelated to smoking. In general, persons with a low consumption of green vegetables were at higher risk for lung cancer. This finding might be due to an increased susceptibility in the presence of a relative deficiency of vitamin A.

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