Mar 29, 2020

Role and mechanism of programmed death-ligand 1 in hypoxia-induced liver cancer immune escape

Oncology Letters
Qingxian WenShulong Jiang

Abstract

Immune escape plays a vital role in the development of liver cancer. The interaction between programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) and programmed cell death-1 is a key mediator of cancer immune escape, which leads to the suppression of anticancer immunity and promotion of tumor progression. Hypoxia is a common phenomenon in the tumor microenvironment. Under hypoxic conditions, suppressive immune cells, such as regulatory T cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells and M2 macrophages, are frequently recruited to tumor tissues to form the immunosuppressive microenvironment in liver cancer. These cells secrete cancer-promoting inflammatory cytokines, which activate the STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathways. Recent studies have shown that STAT3 is associated with NF-κB and that these transcription factors are often co-activated to regulate tumor proliferation, survival, angiogenesis and invasion. The activation of STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathways can directly and indirectly induce PD-L1 expression. Therefore, further understanding of the association between hypoxia and PD-L1 may help in the future treatment of liver cancer. The present review summarizes the recent progresses on PD-L1-mediated regulation and facilitation of liver cancer ce...Continue Reading

  • References
  • Citations

References

  • We're still populating references for this paper, please check back later.
  • References
  • Citations

Citations

  • This paper may not have been cited yet.

Mentioned in this Paper

Stat3 protein
Immune Cell Activation Process
Cell Secretion
STAT3
NF-kappa B
Immune Effector Cell
Progressive Disease
Death Receptor Ligand
Antineoplastic Agents
Tumor Escape

Trending Feeds

COVID-19

Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Coronavirus Protein Structures

Deciphering and comparing the proteins of different coronaviruses forms a basis for understanding SARS-CoV-2 evolution and virus-receptor interactions. This feed follows studies analyzing the structures of coronavirus proteins, thereby revealing potential drug target sites.

DDX3X Syndrome

DDX3X syndrome is caused by a spontaneous mutation at conception that primarily affects girls due to its location on the X-chromosome. DDX3X syndrome has been linked to intellectual disabilities, seizures, autism, low muscle tone, brain abnormalities, and slower physical developments. Here is the latest research.

ALS: Stress Granules

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by cytoplasmic protein aggregates within motor neurons. TDP-43 is an ALS-linked protein that is known to regulate splicing and storage of specific mRNAs into stress granules, which have been implicated in formation of ALS protein aggregates. Here is the latest research.

Fusion Oncoproteins in Childhood Cancers

This feed explores the function of fusion oncoproteins in specific childhood cancers, including those from racial/ethnic minority and underserved groups, and to provide preclinical assessment of potential therapeutics and how fusion oncoproteins influence gene expression to perturb normal cellular programs to block lineage differentiation and development

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Regulation of Vocal-Motor Plasticity

Dopaminergic projections to the basal ganglia and nucleus accumbens shape the learning and plasticity of motivated behaviors across species including the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity and performance in songbirds. Discover the latest research on the regulation of vocal-motor plasticity here.

Mitotic-exit networks with cytokinesis

Cytokinesis is the highly regulated process that physically separates daughter and mother cells in late mitosis. The mitotic-exit network (MEN), the signalling pathway that drives mitotic exit, directly regulates cytokinesis. Discover the latest research on mitotic-exit networks with cytokinesis here.

DNA Replication Origin

DNA replication is initiated as specific gene sequences, called origins, that function to start DNA replication. Pre-replication complexes are assembled at these origins during the G1 phase of the cell cycle. These sequences allow for targeted activation or deactivation of replication. Discover the latest research on DNA replication origins here.