Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens can cause refractory keratitis resulting in corneal perforation and blindness. These bacteria produce various kinds of proteases. In addition to pseudomonal elastase (LasB) and alkaline protease, LasA protease and protease IV have recently been found to be more important virulence factors of P. aeruginosa . S. marcescens produces a cysteine protease in addition to metalloproteases. These bacterial proteases have a number of biological activities, such as degradation of tissue constituents and host defense-oriented proteins, as well as activation of zymogens (Hageman factor, prekallikrein and pro-matrix metalloproteinases) through limited proteolysis. In this article, the properties of these bacterial proteases are reviewed and the pathogenic roles of these proteases in pseudomonal keratitis are discussed.
Activation of human plasma prekallikrein by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase. II. Kinetic analysis and identification of scissile bond of prekallikrein in the activation
Activation of human Hageman factor by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase in the presence or absence of negatively charged substance in vitro
Effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase and alkaline protease on serum complement and isolated components C1q and C3
Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasB mutant constructed by insertional mutagenesis reveals elastolytic activity due to alkaline proteinase and the LasA fragment
Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase and Pseudomonas keratitis using a thiol-based peptide.
Degradation of protease inhibitors, immunoglobulins, and other serum proteins by Serratia protease and its toxicity to fibroblast in culture.
Interactions of purified Serratia marcescens metalloproteases with fresh human serum and with purified human serum proteins
Inactivation of human gamma interferon by Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases: elastase augments the effects of alkaline protease despite the presence of alpha 2-macroglobulin.
Inactivation of various proteinase inhibitors and the complement system in human plasma by the 56-kilodalton proteinase from Serratia marcescens.
A serratial protease causes vascular permeability reaction by activation of the Hageman factor-dependent pathway in guinea pigs.
Inhibition of human natural killer cell activity by Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease and elastase.
Characterization of 73 kDa thiol protease from Serratia marcescens and its effect on plasma proteins
Degradation of soluble laminin and depletion of tissue-associated basement membrane laminin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase and alkaline protease.
Pathogenic capacity of proteases from Serratia marcescens and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and their suppression by chicken egg white ovomacroglobulin.
Cleavage of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA around the hinge region by proteases from Serratia marcescens.
Inhibition of human lymphocyte proliferation and cleavage of interleukin-2 by Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease degrades human gamma interferon and inhibits its bioactivity.
The serratial 56K protease as a major pathogenic factor in serratial keratitis. Clinical and experimental study
In vitro evidence that human airway lysozyme is cleaved and inactivated by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase and not by human leukocyte elastase.
Interaction of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease and elastase with human polymorphonuclear leukocytes in vitro.
Role of the zinc atom in the activity and conformational stability of serratial 56K protease. A fluorometric study
Purification and characterization of four proteases from a clinical isolate of Serratia marcescens kums 3958.
Isolation and characterization of alkaline protease-deficient mutants of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro and in a mouse eye model.
Purification of human plasma alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor and its inactivation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase
Enzymatic inactivation of human plasma C1-inhibitor and alpha 1-antichymotrypsin by Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteinase and elastase
Inhibition by phosphoramidon of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase injected intracorneally in rabbit eyes
Pathogenesis of serratial infection: activation of the Hageman factor-prekallikrein cascade by serratial protease
Experimental studies of the pathogenesis of infections owing to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: elastase, an IgG protease
The effect of 2-mercaptoacetyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine, a specific inhibitor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase, on experimental Pseudomonas keratitis in rabbit eyes
Characterization of rabbit corneal damage produced by Serratia keratitis and by a serratia protease.
Inactivation of human plasma alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by a metalloproteinase from Serratia marcescens
The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase in corneal ring abscess formation in pseudomonal keratitis
In vivo characterization of host and bacterial protease expression during Pseudomonas aeruginosa corneal infections in naive and immunized mice
Contribution of proteases and LasR to the virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa during corneal infections.
The Leu-3 residue of Serratia marcescens metalloprotease inhibitor is important in inhibitory activity and binding with Serratia marcescens metalloprotease
Characterization and purification of an outer membrane metalloproteinase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa with fibrinogenolytic activity
Hemorrhagic activity and muscle damaging effect of Pseudomonas aeruginosa metalloproteinase (elastase)
Matrix metalloproteinases induction by pseudomonal virulence factors and inflammatory cytokines in vitro
Pseudomonas keratitis: protease IV gene conservation, distribution, and production relative to virulence and other Pseudomonas proteases
A continuous spectrophotometric assay for Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasA protease (staphylolysin) using a two-stage enzymatic reaction
Nonnatural amino acid incorporation into the methionine 214 position of the metzincin Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease
Epigenetic control of virulence gene expression in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by a LysR-type transcription regulator
The regulatory repertoire of Pseudomonas aeruginosa AmpC ß-lactamase regulator AmpR includes virulence genes
Disruption of the endothelial barrier by proteases from the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa: implication of matrilysis and receptor cleavage
Prevalence of local immune response against oral infection in a Drosophila/Pseudomonas infection model
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasB metalloproteinase regulates the human urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor through domain-specific endoproteolysis
Cwp84, a surface-associated protein of Clostridium difficile, is a cysteine protease with degrading activity on extracellular matrix proteins
Human pre-elafin inhibits a Pseudomonas aeruginosa-secreted peptidase and prevents its proliferation in complex media
Swarming of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a complex adaptation leading to increased production of virulence factors and antibiotic resistance
Negative regulation of quorum-sensing systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa by ATP-dependent Lon protease
The omptins of Yersinia pestis and Salmonella enterica cleave the reactive center loop of plasminogen activator inhibitor 1
The Pseudomonas aeruginosa PhoP-PhoQ two-component regulatory system is induced upon interaction with epithelial cells and controls cytotoxicity and inflammation
The investigation of nematocidal activity in Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2 and characterization of a novel virulence serine protease
Specific protease activity indicates the degree of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in chronic infected wounds
Interaction of a novel form of Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease (aeruginolysin) with interleukin-6 and interleukin-8
The thermolysin-like metalloproteinase and virulence factor LasB from pathogenic Pseudomonas aeruginosa induces anoikis of human vascular cells
Detection of virulence factors in Serratia strains isolated from contact lens-associated corneal ulcers
RpA, an extracellular protease similar to the metalloprotease of serralysin family, is required for pathogenicity of Ralstonia pickettii
Human pathogens utilize host extracellular matrix proteins laminin and collagen for adhesion and invasion of the host
Collagen cross-linking with photoactivated riboflavin (PACK-CXL) for the treatment of advanced infectious keratitis with corneal melting
Inhibition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence: characterization of the AprA-AprI interface and species selectivity
Crystal structure of the LasA virulence factor from Pseudomonas aeruginosa: substrate specificity and mechanism of M23 metallopeptidases
Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from post-cataract endophthalmitis patients
Global Regulator MorA Affects Virulence-Associated Protease Secretion in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1
Corticosteroids as a therapy for bacterial keratitis: an evidence-based review of 'who, when and why'
Molecular Detection of the Virulent ExoU Genotype of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Infected Surgical Incisions
Evaluation of a biomimetic 3D substrate based on the Human Elastin-like Polypeptides (HELPs) model system for elastolytic activity detection
The selectivity of galardin and an azasugar-based hydroxamate compound for human matrix metalloproteases and bacterial metalloproteases
EepR Mediates Secreted-Protein Production, Desiccation Survival, and Proliferation in a Corneal Infection Model
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Magnesium Transporter MgtE Inhibits Type III Secretion System Gene Expression by Stimulating rsmYZ Transcription
Genome-Wide Survey of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 Reveals a Role for the Glyoxylate Pathway and Extracellular Proteases in the Utilization of Mucin
Pseudomonas aeruginosa elastase cleaves a C-terminal peptide from human thrombin that inhibits host inflammatory responses
Detection of virulence factors in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated from contact lens-associated corneal ulcers
Mechanistic insights into elastin degradation by pseudolysin, the major virulence factor of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Pseudomonas aeruginosa alkaline protease blocks complement activation via the classical and lectin pathways
Effect of temperature and time of storage on protein stability and anti-salmonella activity of egg white
Serralysin family metalloproteases protects Serratia marcescens from predation by the predatory bacteria Micavibrio aeruginosavorus
Corneal Cross-Linking Window Absorption (CXL-WA) as an Adjuvant Therapy in the Management of Aspergillus niger Keratitis
Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasB Subverts Alveolar Macrophage Activity by Interfering With Bacterial Killing Through Downregulation of Innate Immune Defense, Reactive Oxygen Species Generation, and Complement Activation
Comparative Analysis of Virulence Profiles of Serratia marcescens Isolated from Diverse Clinical Origins in Mexican Patients
High prevalence of atypical virulotype and genetically diverse background among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from a referral hospital in the Brazilian Amazon
Dissecting capture and twisting of aureolysin and pseudolysin: functional amino acids of the Dispase autolysis-inducing protein
Analysis of genes encoding for proteolytic enzymes and cytotoxic proteins as virulence factors of Piscirickettsia salmonis in SHK-1 cells.
Inhibition of bacterial and human zinc-metalloproteases by bisphosphonate- and catechol-containing compounds.
Melting corneal ulcers (keratomalacia) in dogs: A 5-year clinical and microbiological study (2014-2018).
Cross-Linking Assisted Infection Reduction (CLAIR): A Randomized Clinical Trial Evaluating the Effect of Adjuvant Cross-Linking on Bacterial Keratitis.
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