Jul 23, 2019

Role of DNA Methylation in the Development and Differentiation of Intestinal Epithelial Cells and Smooth Muscle Cells

Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
Brian G Jorgensen, Seungil Ro

Abstract

The mammalian intestine contains many different cell types but is comprised of 2 main cell types: epithelial cells and smooth muscle cells. Recent in vivo and in vitro evidence has revealed that various alterations to the DNA methylation apparatus within both of these cell types can result in a variety of cellular phenotypes including modified differentiation status, apoptosis, and uncontrolled growth. Methyl groups added to cytosines in regulatory genomic regions typically act to repress associated gene transcription. Aberrant DNA methylation patterns are often found in cells with abnormal growth/differentiation patterns, including those cells involved in burdensome intestinal pathologies including inflammatory bowel diseases and intestinal pseudo-obstructions. The altered methylation patterns being observed in various cell cultures and DNA methyltransferase knockout models indicate an influential connection between DNA methylation and gastrointestinal cells' development and their response to environmental signaling. As these modified DNA methylation levels are found in a number of pathological gastrointestinal conditions, further investigations into uncovering the causative nature, and controlled regulation, of this epigeneti...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

In Vivo
Patterns
Developmental Growth Involved in Morphogenesis
Regulation of Biological Process
Transcription, Genetic
Myocytes, Smooth Muscle
Genomic Stability
Environment
Cell Culture Techniques
Cytosine

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