Glutamine is the most abundant amino acid in the human body and is involved in more metabolic processes than any other amino acid. Until recently, the understanding of many aspects of glutamine metabolism was based on animal and in vitro data. However, recent studies using isotopic and balance techniques have greatly advanced the understanding of glutamine metabolism in humans and its role in glucose metabolism in the kidney and other tissues. There is now evidence that in postabsorptive humans, glutamine is an important glucose precursor and makes a significant contribution to the addition of new carbon to the glucose carbon pool. The importance of alanine for gluconeogenesis, viewed in terms of the addition of new carbons, is less than previously assumed. It appears that glutamine is predominantly a renal gluconeogenic substrate, whereas alanine gluconeogenesis is essentially confined to the liver. As shown recently, renal gluconeogenesis contributes 20 to 25% to whole-body glucose production. Moreover, glutamine has been shown not only to stimulate net muscle glycogen storage but also to stimulate gluconeogenesis in normal humans. Finally, in humans with type II diabetes, conversion of glutamine to glucose is increased (more...Continue Reading
The effects of starvation and experimental diabetes on phosphoenol-pyruvate carboxykinase in the guinea pig
The stimulatory effect of glucagon and dibutyryl cyclic AMP on ureogenesis and gluconeogenesis in relation to the mitochondrial ATP content
Metabolism of isolated kidney tubules. Interactions between lactate, glutamine and oleate metabolism
Interrelationship of somatostatin, insulin, and calcium in the control of gluconeogenesis in kidney cortex slices
The effect of ammonium chloride and glucagon on the metabolism of glutamine in isolated liver cells from starved rats
The effects of ammonium chloride and bicarbonate on the activity of glutaminase in isolated liver mitochondria
Effect of intraarterial infusion of the ketoanalogue of leucine on amino acid release by forearm muscle
Effect of protein ingestion on splanchnic and leg metabolism in normal man and in patients with diabetes mellitus
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Comparison of the effects of various amino acids on glycogen synthesis, lipogenesis and ketogenesis in isolated rat hepatocytes
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Gut exchange of glucose and lactate in basal state and after oral glucose ingestion in postoperative patients
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Contribution of several amino acids and lactate to gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from rats fed various diets
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Metabolic fate of glutamate carbon in rat renal tubules. Studies with 13C nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Effect of glutamine on fructose 2,6-bisphosphate and on glucose metabolism in HeLa cells and in chick-embryo fibroblasts
The regulation of glutamine and ketone-body metabolism in the small intestine of the long-term (40-day) streptozotocin-diabetic rat
Determination of Krebs cycle metabolic carbon exchange in vivo and its use to estimate the individual contributions of gluconeogenesis and glycogenolysis to overall glucose output in man
Metabolism of glutamine by the intact functioning kidney of the dog. Studies in metabolic acidosis and alkalosis
Gluconeogenesis and amino acid metabolism. I. Comparison of various precursors for hepatic gluconeogenesis in vivo
The effects of different dietary contents of protein on amino acid and glucose production and on the contribution of amino acids to gluconeogensis in sheep
Renal gluconeogenesis in acidosis, alkalosis, and potassium deficiency: its possible role in regulation of renal ammonia production
The contrasting responses of splanchnic and renal glucose output to gluconeogenic substrates and to hypoglucagonemia in 60-h-fasted humans
Acceleration of proteolysis in perfused rat liver by deletion of glucogenic amino acids: regulatory role of glutamine
Renal enzymes during experimental diabetes mellitus in the rat. Role of insulin, carbohydrate metabolism, and ketoacidosis
Effects of ingested steak and infused leucine on forelimb metabolism in man and the fate of the carbon skeletons and amino groups of branched-chain amino acids
Characteristics of ammoniagenesis and gluconeogenesis by the diabetic kidney. In vitro studies in the rat
Glucose and insulin effects on the novo amino acid synthesis in young men: studies with stable isotope labeled alanine, glycine, leucine, and lysine
The effects of chronic metabolic acidosis on liver and muscle glutamine metabolism in the dog in vivo
Changes in metabolism of rat kidney and liver caused by experimental diabetes and by dietary sucrose
Amino acid inhibition of the autophagic/lysosomal pathway of protein degradation in isolated rat hepatocytes
Influence of leucine on arterial concentrations and regional exchange of amino acids in healthy subjects
Plasma-membrane transport of alanine is rate-limiting for its metabolism in rat-liver parenchymal cells
Uptake and release of glucose by the human kidney. Postabsorptive rates and responses to epinephrine
Time course of changes in mRNAs for enzymes of glutamine metabolism in kidney during metabolic acidosis
Determination of glutamine and alpha-ketoglutarate concentration and specific activity in plasma using high-performance liquid chromatography
Induction of allogeneic islet survival by intrahepatic islet preimmunization and transient immunosuppression
Banting Lecture 1995. A lesson in metabolic regulation inspired by the glucokinase glucose sensor paradigm
Amino acid extraction and ammonia metabolism by the human kidney during the prolonged administration of ammonium chloride
Sterol carrier protein-2 (SCP-2) involvement in cholesterol hydroperoxide cytotoxicity as revealed by SCP-2 inhibitor effects.
Combined methionine deprivation and chloroethylnitrosourea have time-dependent therapeutic synergy on melanoma tumors that NMR spectroscopy-based metabolomics explains by methionine and phospholipid metabolism reprogramming
Evidence of a vicious cycle in glutamine synthesis and breakdown in pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy-therapeutic perspectives
Mitochondrial thiol modification by a targeted electrophile inhibits metabolism in breast adenocarcinoma cells by inhibiting enzyme activity and protein levels
Quantitative proteomics analysis reveals glutamine deprivation activates fatty acid β-oxidation pathway in HepG2 cells
Loss of function mutation of the Slc38a3 glutamine transporter reveals its critical role for amino acid metabolism in the liver, brain, and kidney
Identification of a urine metabolomic signature in patients with advanced-stage chronic kidney disease
A genetic variant in SLC6A20 is associated with Type 2 diabetes in white-European and Chinese populations
Paradoxical changes of muscle glutamine release during hyperinsulinemia euglycemia and hypoglycemia in humans: further evidence for the glucose-glutamine cycle
Hypoglycemia in falciparum malaria: is fasting an unrecognized and insufficiently emphasized risk factor?
The mitochondrial isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) and glucose homeostasis: has it been overlooked?
Response to weaning and dietary L-glutamine supplementation: metabolomic analysis in piglets by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry
Nutritional regulation of the anabolic fate of amino acids within the liver in mammals: concepts arising from in vivo studies
¹H NMR-based metabolomics approach to evaluate the effect of Xue-Fu-Zhu-Yu decoction on hyperlipidemia rats induced by high-fat diet
Hyperglycemia and a common variant of GCKR are associated with the levels of eight amino acids in 9,369 Finnish men
Determination of the anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of l-glutamine and l-alanine, or dipeptide, supplementation in rats submitted to resistance exercise
Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative (1)H NMR Metabonomic Study
Weight loss and morphometric study of intestinal mucosa in rats after massive intestinal resection: influence of a glutamine-enriched diet
Keto analogue and amino acid supplementation and its effects on ammonemia and performance under thermoneutral conditions
Plasma amino acid levels are elevated in young, healthy low birth weight men exposed to short-term high-fat overfeeding
Effects of Glutamine and Alanine Supplementation on Central Fatigue Markers in Rats Submitted to Resistance Training
Effects of Glutamine and Alanine Supplementation on Adiposity, Plasma Lipid Profile, and Adipokines of Rats Submitted to Resistance Training
Supplementation of l-Alanyl-l-Glutamine and Fish Oil Improves Body Composition and Quality of Life in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure
Functional role of glucose metabolism, osmotic stress, and sodium-glucose cotransporter isoform-mediated transport on Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 3 activity in the renal proximal tubule
Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor-I treatment inhibits gluconeogenesis in a transgenic mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus
L-glutamine in vitro regulates rat aortic glutamate content and modulates nitric oxide formation and contractility responses
American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists medical guidelines for the clinical use of dietary supplements and nutraceuticals.
Analysis and interpretation of transcriptomic data obtained from extended Warburg effect genes in patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma
The expression of transglutaminase 2 (TG-2) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its clinical significance
Dexamethasone-Induced Perturbations in Tissue Metabolomics Revealed by Chemical Isotope Labeling LC-MS analysis
Glutamine-β-cyclodextrin for targeted doxorubicin delivery to triple-negative breast cancer tumors via the transporter ASCT2
A second Warburg-like effect in cancer metabolism: The metabolic shift of glutamine-derived nitrogen: A shift in glutamine-derived nitrogen metabolism from glutaminolysis to de novo nucleotide biosynthesis contributes to malignant evolution of cancer
Glutamine and cystine-enriched diets modulate aquaporins gene expression in the small intestine of piglets.
Exposure to Trichloroethylene Metabolite S-(1,2-Dichlorovinyl)-L-cysteine Causes Compensatory Changes to Macronutrient Utilization and Energy Metabolism in Placental HTR-8/SVneo Cells.
The Human Breast Milk Metabolome in Preeclampsia, Gestational Diabetes, and Intrauterine Growth Restriction: Implications for Child Growth and Development
Regulation of the Mitochondrion-Fatty Acid Axis for the Metabolic Reprogramming of Chlamydia trachomatis during Treatment with β-Lactam Antimicrobials.
Pharmacological Vitamin C Treatment Impedes the Growth of Endogenous Glutamine-Dependent Cancers by Targeting Glutamine Synthetase.
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