Apr 11, 2018

Role of Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide and Related Precursors as Therapeutic Targets for Age-Related Degenerative Diseases: Rationale, Biochemistry, Pharmacokinetics, and Outcomes

Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Nady BraidyPerminder Sachdev

Abstract

Significance: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) is an essential pyridine nucleotide that serves as an essential cofactor and substrate for a number of critical cellular processes involved in oxidative phosphorylation and ATP production, DNA repair, epigenetically modulated gene expression, intracellular calcium signaling, and immunological functions. NAD+ depletion may occur in response to either excessive DNA damage due to free radical or ultraviolet attack, resulting in significant poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) activation and a high turnover and subsequent depletion of NAD+, and/or chronic immune activation and inflammatory cytokine production resulting in accelerated CD38 activity and decline in NAD+ levels. Recent studies have shown that enhancing NAD+ levels can profoundly reduce oxidative cell damage in catabolic tissue, including the brain. Therefore, promotion of intracellular NAD+ anabolism represents a promising therapeutic strategy for age-associated degenerative diseases in general, and is essential to the effective realization of multiple benefits of healthy sirtuin activity. The kynurenine pathway represents the de novo NAD+ synthesis pathway in mammalian cells. NAD+ can also be produced by the NAD+ s...Continue Reading

Mentioned in this Paper

Study
Biochemical Pathway
Nicotinamide Assay
PARP1
Abnormal Degeneration
Cellular Process
Native American Myopathy
Cell Injury
DNA Repair
Nicotinamide Mononucleotide

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