This review focuses on the role of norepinephrine (NE) in traumatic stress. The review is divided into three sections. The first section, "Norepinephrine and Arousal," describes preclinical studies related to norepinephrine's role in arousal, orienting to novel stimuli, selective attention and vigilance. It also contains a brief discussion of NE and its relationship to fear-provoking stimuli followed by preclinical and clinical studies that demonstrate heightened noradrenergic neuronal reactivity, increased alpha 2 receptor sensitivity and exaggerated arousal in organisms that have been exposed to chronic uncontrollable stress. The second section, "Norepinephrine and Memory," describes preclinical and clinical studies related to norepinephrine's role in enhanced encoding of memory for arousing and aversive events and in subsequent re-experiencing symptoms such as, intrusive memories and nightmares. The third section, "Norepinephrine and Pharmacologic Treatment," briefly discusses the use of adrenergic blockers, clonidine and propranol, as well as tricyclic and MAO inhibitors, for the treatment of PTSD. Finally, we attempt to synthesize trauma-related preclinical and clinical studies of norepinephrine. We do this, in part, by fo...Continue Reading
Ameliorating prefrontal cortical dysfunction in mental illness: inhibition of phosphotidyl inositol-protein kinase C signaling
Inactivation of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis in an animal model of relapse: effects on conditioned cue-induced reinstatement and its enhancement by yohimbine
Traumatic stress in rats induces noradrenergic-dependent long-term behavioral sensitization: role of individual differences and similarities with dependence on drugs of abuse
Noradrenergic transmission in the extended amygdala: role in increased drug-seeking and relapse during protracted drug abstinence
Synergistic tonic and phasic activity of the locus coeruleus norepinephrine (LC-NE) arousal system is required for optimal attentional performance
Recent progress in understanding the pathophysiology of post-traumatic stress disorder: implications for targeted pharmacological treatment
Adaptive and maladaptive psychobiological responses to severe psychological stress: implications for the discovery of novel pharmacotherapy
Organization of single components of defensive behaviors within distinct columns of periaqueductal gray matter of the rat: role of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid glutamate receptors
Chronic psychosocial stress impairs learning and memory and increases sensitivity to yohimbine in adult rats
Increased pituitary and adrenal reactivity in premenopausal women with posttraumatic stress disorder
The locus coeruleus-noradrenergic system: modulation of behavioral state and state-dependent cognitive processes
Research on psychiatric outcomes and interventions subsequent to disasters: a review of the literature
Clonidine immediately after immobilization stress prevents long-lasting locomotion reduction in the rat
Glucocorticoids are involved in the long-term effects of a single immobilization stress on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis
Synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of (Z)-9-(heteroarylmethylene)-7-azatricyclo[220.127.116.11(3,7)]decanes: thiophene analogues as potent norepinephrine transporter inhibitors
First-in-class, dual-action, 3,5-disubstituted indole derivatives having human nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitory (NERI) activity for the treatment of neuropathic pain
Sex differences in corticotropin-releasing factor receptor signaling and trafficking: potential role in female vulnerability to stress-related psychopathology
Preclinical evaluation of reconsolidation blockade by clonidine as a potential novel treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder
Social stress engages opioid regulation of locus coeruleus norepinephrine neurons and induces a state of cellular and physical opiate dependence
Peripheral blood mononuclear cell gene expression profiles identify emergent post-traumatic stress disorder among trauma survivors
Inhibition of protein kinase C signaling protects prefrontal cortex dendritic spines and cognition from the effects of chronic stress
Neurobiology of repeated transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of anxiety: a critical review
Common factors among Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and epilepsy: possible role of the noradrenergic nervous system
Enhanced tyrosine hydroxylation in hippocampus of chronically stressed rats upon exposure to a novel stressor
Coordinate regulation of the cyclic AMP system with firing rate and expression of tyrosine hydroxylase in the rat locus coeruleus: effects of chronic stress and drug treatments
Changes in plasma norepinephrine to combat-related stimuli among Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder
Neuropeptide Y: an overview of central distribution, functional aspects, and possible involvement in neuropsychiatric illnesses
Psychophysiologic responses to combat imagery of Vietnam veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder versus other anxiety disorders
Corticotropin-releasing factor administration elicits a stress-like activation of cerebral catecholaminergic systems
Yohimbine increases cerebrospinal fluid and plasma norepinephrine but not arginine vasopressin in humans
Modulating effects of posttraining epinephrine on memory: involvement of the amygdala noradrenergic system
Inhibitory avoidance deficit following short-term adrenalectomy in the rat: the role of adrenal catecholamines
Impulse activity of locus coeruleus neurons in awake rats and monkeys is a function of sensory stimulation and arousal
Effects of opiate antagonists and of morphine on chlordiazepoxide-induced hyperdipsia in the water-deprived rat
Effects of locus coeruleus inactivation on electroencephalographic activity in neocortex and hippocampus
Platelet paroxetine binding and fluoxetine pharmacotherapy in posttraumatic stress disorder: preliminary observations on a possible predictor of clinical treatment response
Persistent elevations of cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of corticotropin-releasing factor in adult nonhuman primates exposed to early-life stressors: implications for the pathophysiology of mood and anxiety disorders
Positron emission tomography measurement of cerebral metabolic correlates of yohimbine administration in combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder
Behavioral and plasma cortisol responses to sodium lactate infusion in posttraumatic stress disorder
Plasma norepinephrine and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylglycol concentrations and severity of depression in combat posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder
Memory for emotional events: differential effects of centrally versus peripherally acting beta-blocking agents
A role for norepinephrine in stress-induced cognitive deficits: alpha-1-adrenoceptor mediation in the prefrontal cortex
Amygdala and Midbrain Dopamine
The midbrain dopamine system is widely studied for its involvement in emotional and motivational behavior. Some of these neurons receive information from the amygdala and project throughout the cortex. When the circuit and transmission of dopamine is disrupted symptoms may present. Here is the latest research on the amygdala and midbrain dopamine.
Discover the latest research on anxiety disorders including agoraphobia, panic disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder here.
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.
Amygdala: Sensory Processes
Amygdalae, nuclei clusters located in the temporal lobe of the brain, play a role in memory, emotional responses, and decision-making. Here is the latest research on sensory processes in the amygdala.
Blood Brain Barrier
The blood brain barrier is a border that separates blood from cerebrospinal fluid. Discover the latest search on this highly selective semipermeable membrane here.
Blood Brain Barrier Chips
The blood brain barrier (BBB) is comprised of endothelial cells that regulate the influx and outflux of plasma concentrations. Lab-on-a-chip devices allow scientists to model diseases and mechanisms such as the passage of therapeutic antibodies across the BBB. Discover the latest research on BBB chips here.
Adrenergic Receptors: Trafficking
Adrenergic receptor trafficking is an active physiological process where adrenergic receptors are relocated from one region of the cell to another or from one type of cell to another. Discover the latest research on adrenergic receptor trafficking here.