Role of primate basal ganglia and frontal cortex in the internal generation of movements. I. Preparatory activity in the anterior striatum

Experimental Brain Research
W Schultz, R Romo

Abstract

The purpose of these studies was to investigate neuronal activity in the basal ganglia and frontal cortex in relation to the internal generation of goal-directed movements. Monkeys performed goal-directed arm movements at a self-chosen moment in the absence of phasic stimuli providing external temporal reference. They were rewarded with a small morsel of food for each movement, although automatic or repetitive behavior was not reinforced. For reasons of comparison, animals were also trained in a delayed go no-go task in which visual cues instructed them to perform or refrain from an arm movement reaction to a subsequent trigger stimulus. This report describes the activity of neurons in the head of the caudate nucleus and rostral putamen preceding self-initiated arm movements and compares it with instruction-induced preparatory activity preceding movements in the delay task. A total of 497 caudate and 354 putamen neurons were tested in the delay task. Two types of preparatory activity were observed: (1) transient responses to the instruction cue, and (2) sustained activity preceding the trigger stimulus or movement onset. Transient responses were found in 48 caudate and 50 putamen neurons, occurring twice as often in movement ('...Continue Reading

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