The purpose of these studies was to investigate neuronal activity in the basal ganglia and frontal cortex in relation to the internal generation of goal-directed movements. Monkeys performed goal-directed arm movements at a self-chosen moment in the absence of phasic stimuli providing external temporal reference. They were rewarded with a small morsel of food for each movement, although automatic or repetitive behavior was not reinforced. For reasons of comparison, animals were also trained in a delayed go no-go task in which visual cues instructed them to perform or refrain from an arm movement reaction to a subsequent trigger stimulus. This report describes the activity of neurons in the head of the caudate nucleus and rostral putamen preceding self-initiated arm movements and compares it with instruction-induced preparatory activity preceding movements in the delay task. A total of 497 caudate and 354 putamen neurons were tested in the delay task. Two types of preparatory activity were observed: (1) transient responses to the instruction cue, and (2) sustained activity preceding the trigger stimulus or movement onset. Transient responses were found in 48 caudate and 50 putamen neurons, occurring twice as often in movement ('...Continue Reading
Clinical studies of the movement-related cortical potential (MP) and the relationship between the dentatorubrothalamic pathway and readiness potential (RP)
An autoradiographic analysis of the efferent connections from premotor and adjacent prefrontal regions (areas 6 and 9) in macaca fascicularis
Frontal lobe inputs to primate motor cortex: evidence for four somatotopically organized 'premotor' areas
Cortico-striate projections in the rhesus monkey: the organization of certain cortico-caudate connections
An electrical sign of participation of the mesial 'supplementary' motor cortex in human voluntary finger movement
Responses of subthalamic and pallidal neurons to striatal stimulation: an extracellular study on awake monkeys
Cortico-cortical connections of two electrophysiologically identified arm representations in the mesial agranular frontal cortex
Discharge patterns of pallidal neurons with input from various cortical areas during movement in the monkey
Fibronectin detection in drainage outflow system of human eyes in ageing and progression of open-angle glaucoma.
Premotor and supplementary motor cortex in rhesus monkeys: neuronal activity during externally- and internally-instructed motor tasks
Neuronal activity of the supplementary motor area (SMA) during internally and externally triggered wrist movements
Neuronal activity preceding directional and nondirectional cues in the premotor cortex of rhesus monkeys
Neuronal activities in the primate motor fields of the agranular frontal cortex preceding visually triggered and self-paced movement
Neuronal activity preceding self-initiated or externally timed arm movements in area 6 of monkey cortex
Does microstimulation evoke fixed-vector saccades by generating their vector or by specifying their goal?
Prefrontal unit activity during delayed conditional Go/No-Go discrimination in the monkey. II. Relation to Go and No-Go responses
Disinhibition as a basic process in the expression of striatal functions. II. The striato-nigral influence on thalamocortical cells of the ventromedial thalamic nucleus
Pallidal and entopeduncular intracellular responses to striatal, cortical, thalamic, and sensory inputs
Cortical afferents and efferents of monkey postarcuate area: an anatomical and electrophysiological study
Distribution of potentials preceding visually initiated and self-paced hand movements in various cortical areas of the monkey
A Golgi analysis of the primate globus pallidus. III. Spatial organization of the striato-pallidal complex
Pallidofugal projections to thalamus and midbrain: a quantitative antidromic activation study in monkeys and cats
Supplementary and precentral motor cortex: contrast in responsiveness to peripheral input in the hindlimb area of the unanesthetized monkey
Cortical field potentials preceding self-paced and visually initiated hand movements in one and the same monkey and influences of cerebellar hemispherectomy upon the potentials
Correlates of sequential elements of bimanual behavior in the neuronal activity of the neostriatum in monkeys
Increased bradykinesia in Parkinson's disease with increased movement complexity: elbow flexion-extension movements.
Dopamine denervation of specific striatal subregions differentially affects preparation and execution of a delayed response task in the rat
A controlled study of sensory tics in Gilles de 1a Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder using a structured interview
Frontal white matter volume is associated with brain enlargement and higher structural connectivity in anthropoid primates.
Cerebral activations related to ballistic, stepwise interrupted and gradually modulated movements in Parkinson patients.
Functional integration across a gradient of corticostriatal channels controls UP state transitions in the dorsal striatum.
Neurons in a forebrain nucleus required for vocal plasticity rapidly switch between precise firing and variable bursting depending on social context.
Responses of amygdala neurons to positive reward-predicting stimuli depend on background reward (contingency) rather than stimulus-reward pairing (contiguity).
Behavior-related modulation of substantia nigra pars reticulata neurons in rats performing a conditioned reinforcement task
Neural activity of supplementary and primary motor areas in monkeys and its relation to bimanual and unimanual movement sequences
Neuromagnetic imaging reveals timing of volitional and anticipatory motor control in bimanual load lifting
Neural responses in multiple basal ganglia regions following unilateral dopamine depletion in behaving rats performing a treadmill locomotion task
Functional differences between macaque prefrontal cortex and caudate nucleus during eye movements with and without reward
Raclopride-induced motor consolidation impairment in primates: role of the dopamine type-2 receptor in movement chunking into integrated sequences
Cellular mechanisms underlying reinforcement-related processing in the nucleus accumbens: electrophysiological studies in behaving animals
Sub- and suprathreshold receptive field properties of pyramidal neurones in layers 5A and 5B of rat somatosensory barrel cortex
Disruption of the two-state membrane potential of striatal neurones during cortical desynchronisation in anaesthetised rats
Basal Ganglia are a group of subcortical nuclei in the brain associated with control of voluntary motor movements, procedural and habit learning, emotion, and cognition. Here is the latest research.