The Human Genome Project revealed that almost half of the human genome consists of transposable elements (TEs), which are also abundant in non-human primates. Various studies have confirmed the roles of different TE families in primate evolution. TEs such as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs), long terminal repeats (LTRs), long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) all have numerous effects on the primate genome, including genomic rearrangement, regulatory functions and epigenetic mechanisms. This review offers an overview of research on TEs, including our current understanding of their presence in modern primate lineages, their evolutionary origins, and their regulatory and modifying effects on primate as well as human genomes. The information provided here should be useful for the study of primate genomics.
A human endogenous long terminal repeat provides a polyadenylation signal to a novel, alternatively spliced transcript in normal placenta
Strategy for detecting cellular transcripts promoted by human endogenous long terminal repeats: identification of a novel gene (CDC4L) with homology to yeast CDC4
DNA methylation inhibits transcription by RNA polymerase III of a tRNA gene, but not of a 5S rRNA gene
HERV-H endogenous retroviruses: presence in the New World branch but amplification in the Old World primate lineage
Use of a mammalian interspersed repetitive (MIR) element in the coding and processing sequences of mammalian genes
Repetitive Alu elements form a cruciform structure that regulates the function of the human CD8 alpha T cell-specific enhancer
Splicing of an anti-sense Alu sequence generates a coding sequence variant for the alpha-3 subunit of a neuronal acetylcholine receptor
Insertion of a 5' truncated L1 element into the 3' end of exon 44 of the dystrophin gene resulted in skipping of the exon during splicing in a case of Duchenne muscular dystrophy
Identification and characterization of an Alu-containing, T-cell-specific enhancer located in the last intron of the human CD8 alpha gene.
The viruses in all of us: characteristics and biological significance of human endogenous retrovirus sequences
Endogenous D-type (HERV-K) related sequences are packaged into retroviral particles in the placenta and possess open reading frames for reverse transcriptase
Purification of human double-stranded RNA-specific editase 1 (hRED1) involved in editing of brain glutamate receptor B pre-mRNA.
Molecular identification of a novel retrovirus repeatedly isolated from patients with multiple sclerosis. The Collaborative Research Group on Multiple Sclerosis
Comparative analyses of LTRs of the ERV-H family of primate-specific retrovirus-like elements isolated from marmoset, African green monkey, and man
Identification of beta1C-2, a novel variant of the integrin beta1 subunit generated by utilization of an alternative splice acceptor site in exon C
Molecular definition of pericentric inversion breakpoints occurring during the evolution of humans and chimpanzees
The long terminal repeat of an endogenous retrovirus induces alternative splicing and encodes an additional carboxy-terminal sequence in the human leptin receptor
Impact of human endogenous retroviral elements on cellular genes: strategy for isolation of LTR-driven chimeric transcripts
Endogenous retroviruses provide the primary polyadenylation signal for two new human genes (HHLA2 and HHLA3)
Novel mutations and genotype-phenotype relationships in 107 families with Fukuyama-type congenital muscular dystrophy (FCMD)
Influence of the human endogenous retrovirus-like element HERV-E.PTN on the expression of growth factor pleiotrophin: a critical role of a retroviral Sp1-binding site
A new exon created by intronic insertion of a rearranged LINE-1 element as the cause of chronic granulomatous disease
Long terminal repeats are used as alternative promoters for the endothelin B receptor and apolipoprotein C-I genes in humans
Analysis of genomic rearrangements associated with EGRFvIII expression suggests involvement of Alu repeat elements
Phylogenetic analysis of ribonuclease H domains suggests a late, chimeric origin of LTR retrotransposable elements and retroviruses
The solitary long terminal repeats of ERV-9 endogenous retrovirus are conserved during primate evolution and possess enhancer activities in embryonic and hematopoietic cells
Evolution of transcription factor binding sites in Mammalian gene regulatory regions: conservation and turnover
Whole-genome screening indicates a possible burst of formation of processed pseudogenes and Alu repeats by particular L1 subfamilies in ancestral primates
Molecular pathology of haemophilia B: identification of five novel mutations including a LINE 1 insertion in Indian patients
Alu elements contain many binding sites for transcription factors and may play a role in regulation of developmental processes
Maintenance of self-renewal ability of mouse embryonic stem cells in the absence of DNA methyltransferases Dnmt1, Dnmt3a and Dnmt3b
Identification of the REST regulon reveals extensive transposable element-mediated binding site duplication
Endogenous retrovirus-related sequences provide an alternative transcript of MCJ genes in human tissues and cancer cells
Repeated recruitment of LTR retrotransposons as promoters by the anti-apoptotic locus NAIP during mammalian evolution
Widespread Alu repeat-driven expansion of consensus DR2 retinoic acid response elements during primate evolution
Ancient exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon into a highly conserved mammalian neuronal enhancer of the proopiomelanocortin gene
Species-specific endogenous retroviruses shape the transcriptional network of the human tumor suppressor protein p53
DNA methylation of retrotransposon genes is regulated by Piwi family members MILI and MIWI2 in murine fetal testes
Cooperative exonization of MaLR and AluJo elements contributed an alternative promoter and novel splice variants of RNF19
Analysis of copy number variants and segmental duplications in the human genome: Evidence for a change in the process of formation in recent evolutionary history
Evolution of the vertebrate gene regulatory network controlled by the transcriptional repressor REST
Lineage specific evolutionary events on SFTPB gene: Alu recombination-mediated deletion (ARMD), exonization, and alternative splicing events
Exaptation of an ancient Alu short interspersed element provides a highly conserved vitamin D-mediated innate immune response in humans and primates
Gain of new exons and promoters by lineage-specific transposable elements-integration and conservation event on CHRM3 gene
Human RNA polymerase III transcriptomes and relationships to Pol II promoter chromatin and enhancer-binding factors
MITOPLD is a mitochondrial protein essential for nuage formation and piRNA biogenesis in the mouse germline
DNA methylation and SETDB1/H3K9me3 regulate predominantly distinct sets of genes, retroelements, and chimeric transcripts in mESCs
Transposon-mediated rewiring of gene regulatory networks contributed to the evolution of pregnancy in mammals
Waves of retrotransposon expansion remodel genome organization and CTCF binding in multiple mammalian lineages
Centromere remodeling in Hoolock leuconedys (Hylobatidae) by a new transposable element unique to the gibbons
The impact of transposable elements on eukaryotic genomes: from genome size increase to genetic adaptation to stressful environments
Essential roles of the histone methyltransferase ESET in the epigenetic control of neural progenitor cells during development
Exaptation of transposable elements into novel cis-regulatory elements: is the evidence always strong?
Epigenetic regulation of transcription and possible functions of mammalian short interspersed elements, SINEs
Deep transcriptome profiling of mammalian stem cells supports a regulatory role for retrotransposons in pluripotency maintenance
Dynamic regulation of human endogenous retroviruses mediates factor-induced reprogramming and differentiation potential
Setdb1 is required for germline development and silencing of H3K9me3-marked endogenous retroviruses in primordial germ cells
Deleting the mouse Hsd17b1 gene results in a hypomorphic Naglu allele and a phenotype mimicking a lysosomal storage disease
A 105 kb interstitial insertion in the Xq27.1 palindrome from pseudoautosomal region PAR1 causes a novel X-linked recessive compound phenotype
Host Factors Influencing the Retrohoming Pathway of Group II Intron RmInt1, Which Has an Intron-Encoded Protein Naturally Devoid of Endonuclease Activity
Characterization of the Long Terminal Repeat of the Endogenous Retrovirus-derived microRNAs in the Olive Flounder
Transposable element-mediated structural variation analysis in dog breeds using whole-genome sequencing
Genome-wide mapping and profiling of γH2AX binding hotspots in response to different replication stress inducers
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STING Receptor Agonists
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Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
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