Roles of ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2) and Nucleolar Proteins in the Adaxial-Abaxial Polarity Specification at the Perinucleolar Region in Arabidopsis.

International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Hidekazu IwakawaChiyoko Machida


Leaves of Arabidopsis develop from a shoot apical meristem grow along three (proximal-distal, adaxial-abaxial, and medial-lateral) axes and form a flat symmetric architecture. ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2 (AS2), a key regulator for leaf adaxial-abaxial partitioning, encodes a plant-specific nuclear protein and directly represses the abaxial-determining gene ETTIN/AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR3 (ETT/ARF3). How AS2 could act as a critical regulator, however, has yet to be demonstrated, although it might play an epigenetic role. Here, we summarize the current understandings of the genetic, molecular, and cellular functions of AS2. A characteristic genetic feature of AS2 is the presence of a number of (about 60) modifier genes, mutations of which enhance the leaf abnormalities of as2. Although genes for proteins that are involved in diverse cellular processes are known as modifiers, it has recently become clear that many modifier proteins, such as NUCLEOLIN1 (NUC1) and RNA HELICASE10 (RH10), are localized in the nucleolus. Some modifiers including ribosomal proteins are also members of the small subunit processome (SSUP). In addition, AS2 forms perinucleolar bodies partially colocalizing with chromocenters that include the condensed inactive 45S rib...Continue Reading


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