Feb 8, 2019

S100A8 & S100A9: Alarmin mediated inflammation in tendinopathy

Scientific Reports
Lindsay A N CroweNeal L Millar

Abstract

Alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 are endogenous molecules released in response to environmental triggers and cellular damage. They are constitutively expressed in immune cells such as monocytes and neutrophils and their expression is upregulated under inflammatory conditions. The molecular mechanisms that regulate inflammatory pathways in tendinopathy are largely unknown therefore identifying early immune effectors is essential to understanding the pathology. Based on our previous investigations highlighting tendinopathy as an alarmin mediated pathology we sought evidence of S100A8 & A9 expression in a human model of tendinopathy and thereafter, to explore mechanisms whereby S100 proteins may regulate release of inflammatory mediators and matrix synthesis in human tenocytes. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed S100A8 & A9 expression was significantly upregulated in tendinopathic tissue compared with control. Furthermore, treating primary human tenocytes with exogenous S100A8 & A9 significantly increased protein release of IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL10; however, no alterations in genes associated with matrix remodelling were observed at a transcript level. We propose S100A8 & A9 participate in early pathology by m...Continue Reading

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Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Tendinopathy
CCL20
Immune Effector Cell
S100A9
Immunohistochemistry
CCL20 gene
Cell Injury
Genes
Inflammation Mediators
Environment

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