Feb 8, 2019

S100A8 & S100A9: Alarmin mediated inflammation in tendinopathy

Scientific Reports
Lindsay A N CroweNeal L Millar


Alarmins S100A8 and S100A9 are endogenous molecules released in response to environmental triggers and cellular damage. They are constitutively expressed in immune cells such as monocytes and neutrophils and their expression is upregulated under inflammatory conditions. The molecular mechanisms that regulate inflammatory pathways in tendinopathy are largely unknown therefore identifying early immune effectors is essential to understanding the pathology. Based on our previous investigations highlighting tendinopathy as an alarmin mediated pathology we sought evidence of S100A8 & A9 expression in a human model of tendinopathy and thereafter, to explore mechanisms whereby S100 proteins may regulate release of inflammatory mediators and matrix synthesis in human tenocytes. Immunohistochemistry and quantitative RT-PCR showed S100A8 & A9 expression was significantly upregulated in tendinopathic tissue compared with control. Furthermore, treating primary human tenocytes with exogenous S100A8 & A9 significantly increased protein release of IL-6, IL-8, CCL2, CCL20 and CXCL10; however, no alterations in genes associated with matrix remodelling were observed at a transcript level. We propose S100A8 & A9 participate in early pathology by m...Continue Reading

  • References44
  • Citations1


Mentioned in this Paper

Immune Effector Cell
CCL20 gene
Cell Injury
Inflammation Mediators

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.

Bone Marrow Neoplasms

Bone Marrow Neoplasms are cancers that occur in the bone marrow. Discover the latest research on Bone Marrow Neoplasms here.

IGA Glomerulonephritis

IgA glomerulonephritis is a chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly Iimmunoglobin A in the mesangial area. Discover the latest research on IgA glomerulonephritis here.

Cryogenic Electron Microscopy

Cryogenic electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) allows the determination of biological macromolecules and their assemblies at a near-atomic resolution. Here is the latest research.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.

LRRK2 & Immunity During Infection

Mutations in the LRRK2 gene are a risk-factor for developing Parkinson’s disease. However, LRRK2 has been shown to function as a central regulator of vesicular trafficking, infection, immunity, and inflammation. Here is the latest research on the role of this kinase on immunity during infection.

Antiphospholipid Syndrome

Antiphospholipid syndrome or antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS or APLS), is an autoimmune, hypercoagulable state caused by the presence of antibodies directed against phospholipids.

Meningococcal Myelitis

Meningococcal myelitis is characterized by inflammation and myelin damage to the meninges and spinal cord. Discover the latest research on meningococcal myelitis here.

Alzheimer's Disease: MS4A

Variants within membrane-spanning 4-domains subfamily A (MS4A) gene cluster have recently been implicated in Alzheimer's disease by recent genome-wide association studies. Here is the latest research.