SARS-CoV-2 Cell Entry Factors ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are Expressed in the Pancreas but are Not Enriched in Islet Endocrine Cells

BioRxiv : the Preprint Server for Biology
Katie C CoateAlvin C Powers

Abstract

Reports of new-onset diabetes and diabetic ketoacidosis in individuals with COVID-19 have led to the hypothesis that SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is directly cytotoxic to pancreatic islet β cells. This would require binding and entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host β cells via cell surface co-expression of ACE2 and TMPRSS2, the putative receptor and effector protease, respectively. To define ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in the human pancreas, we examined six transcriptional datasets from primary human islet cells and assessed protein expression by immunofluorescence in pancreata from donors with and without diabetes. ACE2 and TMPRSS2 transcripts were low or undetectable in pancreatic islet endocrine cells as determined by bulk or single cell RNA sequencing, and neither protein was detected in α or β cells from these donors. Instead, ACE2 protein was expressed in the islet and exocrine tissue microvasculature and also found in a subset of pancreatic ducts, whereas TMPRSS2 protein was restricted to ductal cells. The absence of significant ACE2 and TMPRSS2 co-expression in islet endocrine cells reduces the likelihood that SARS-CoV-2 directly infects pancreatic islet β cells through these cell entry proteins.

Methods Mentioned

BETA
fluorescence activated cell sorting
RNA-seq
scRNA-seq
sc-RNAseq

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