SARS-CoV-2 spike protein: pathogenesis, vaccines, and potential therapies.

Ahmed M AlmehdiSameh S M Soliman


COVID-19 pandemic has emerged as a result of infection by the deadly pathogenic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), causing enormous threats to humans. Coronaviruses are distinguished by a clove-like spike (S) protein, which plays a key role in viral pathogenesis, evolutions, and transmission. The objectives of this study are to investigate the distinctive structural features of SARS-CoV-2 S protein, its essential role in pathogenesis, and its use in the development of potential therapies and vaccines. A literature review was conducted to summarize, analyze, and interpret the available scientific data related to SARS-CoV-2 S protein in terms of characteristics, vaccines development and potential therapies. The data indicate that S protein subunits and their variable conformational states significantly affect the virus pathogenesis, infectivity, and evolutionary mutation. A considerable number of potential natural and synthetic therapies were proposed based on S protein. Additionally, neutralizing antibodies were recently approved for emergency use. Furthermore, several vaccines utilizing the S protein were developed. A better understanding of S protein features, structure and mutations facilitate the r...Continue Reading


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