The ongoing SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to the focused application of resources and scientific expertise toward the goal of developing investigational vaccines to prevent COVID-19. The highly collaborative global efforts by private industry, governments and non-governmental organizations have resulted in a number of SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidates moving to Phase III trials in a period of only months since the start of the pandemic. In this review, we provide an overview of the preclinical and clinical data on SARS-CoV-2 vaccines that are currently in Phase III clinical trials and in few cases authorized for emergency use. We further discuss relevant vaccine platforms and provide a discussion of SARS-CoV-2 antigens that may be targeted to increase the breadth and durability of vaccine responses.
Interactions between coronavirus nucleocapsid protein and viral RNAs: implications for viral transcription
Respiratory syncytial virus disease in infants despite prior administration of antigenic inactivated vaccine
Structure of bacteriophage T4 fibritin: a segmented coiled coil and the role of the C-terminal domain
The missing link in coronavirus assembly. Retention of the avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus envelope protein in the pre-Golgi compartments and physical interaction between the envelope and membrane proteins.
A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus protein, U274, is transported to the cell surface and undergoes endocytosis
Antibody response of patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) targets the viral nucleocapsid
Generation of synthetic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus pseudoparticles: implications for assembly and vaccine production
Immunization with modified vaccinia virus Ankara-based recombinant vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome is associated with enhanced hepatitis in ferrets
Overexpression of 7a, a protein specifically encoded by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus, induces apoptosis via a caspase-dependent pathway
Coronaviral hypothetical and structural proteins were found in the intestinal surface enterocytes and pneumocytes of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)
The 3a protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus induces apoptosis in Vero E6 cells
Assembly of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus RNA packaging signal into virus-like particles is nucleocapsid dependent
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus group-specific open reading frames encode nonessential functions for replication in cell cultures and mice
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 3a protein is released in membranous structures from 3a protein-expressing cells and infected cells
HLA-A*0201 T-cell epitopes in severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus nucleocapsid and spike proteins.
Biochemical evidence for the presence of mixed membrane topologies of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus envelope protein expressed in mammalian cells.
Long-lived memory T lymphocyte responses against SARS coronavirus nucleocapsid protein in SARS-recovered patients.
Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus 3a protein forms an ion channel and modulates virus release
Vaccine efficacy in senescent mice challenged with recombinant SARS-CoV bearing epidemic and zoonotic spike variants
Identification and characterization of dominant helper T-cell epitopes in the nucleocapsid protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus
Induction of apoptosis by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 7a protein is dependent on its interaction with the Bcl-XL protein
Two-way antigenic cross-reactivity between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and group 1 animal CoVs is mediated through an antigenic site in the N-terminal region of the SARS-CoV nucleoprotein.
Virus-like particles of SARS-like coronavirus formed by membrane proteins from different origins demonstrate stimulating activity in human dendritic cells.
Dissection and identification of regions required to form pseudoparticles by the interaction between the nucleocapsid (N) and membrane (M) proteins of SARS coronavirus.
Prior immunization with severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) nucleocapsid protein causes severe pneumonia in mice infected with SARS-CoV
Efficacy assessment of a cell-mediated immunity HIV-1 vaccine (the Step Study): a double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled, test-of-concept trial.
Structural and functional bases for broad-spectrum neutralization of avian and human influenza A viruses.
Process development and scale-up optimization of the SARS-CoV-2 receptor binding domain-based vaccine candidate, RBD219-N1C1.
The Risk of Allergic Reaction to SARS-CoV-2 Vaccines and Recommended Evaluation and Management: A Systematic Review, Meta-Analysis, GRADE Assessment, and International Consensus Approach.
[SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and reaction of the immune system. Can the epidemic spread of the virus be prevented by vaccination?]
Synopsis of Pharmotechnological Approaches in Diagnostic and Management Strategies for Fighting Against COVID-19.
Clinical Trials Mentioned
BioHub - Researcher Network
The Chan-Zuckerberg Biohub aims to support the fundamental research and develop the technologies that will enable physicians to cure, prevent, or manage all diseases in our childrens' lifetimes. The CZ Biohub brings together researchers from UC Berkeley, Stanford, and UCSF. Find the latest research from the CZ Biohub researcher network here.