Aug 25, 2009

Schizophrenia

Lancet
Jim van Os, Shitij Kapur

Abstract

Schizophrenia is still one of the most mysterious and costliest mental disorders in terms of human suffering and societal expenditure. Here, we focus on the key developments in biology, epidemiology, and pharmacology of schizophrenia and provide a syndromal framework in which these aspects can be understood together. Symptoms typically emerge in adolescence and early adulthood. The incidence of the disorder varies greatly across places and migrant groups, as do symptoms, course, and treatment response across individuals. Genetic vulnerability is shared in part with bipolar disorder and recent molecular genetic findings also indicate an overlap with developmental disorders such as autism. The diagnosis of schizophrenia is associated with demonstrable alterations in brain structure and changes in dopamine neurotransmission, the latter being directly related to hallucinations and delusions. Pharmacological treatments, which block the dopamine system, are effective for delusions and hallucinations but less so for disabling cognitive and motivational impairments. Specific vocational and psychological interventions, in combination with antipsychotic medication in a context of community-case management, can improve functional outcome ...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Cost of Illness
Antipsychotic Effect
Schizophrenia
Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome
Brain
Synaptic Transmission
Bipolar Disorder
Autistic Disorder
Differential Diagnosis
Antipsychotic Agents

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