The purpose of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of reported methods for screening and confirmation of the low-molecular-weight compound and drug of abuse gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in biological fluids. The polarity of the compound, its endogenous presence, its rapid metabolism after ingestion, and its instability during storage (de novo formation and interconversion between GHB and its lactone form gamma-butyrolactone) are challenges for the analyst and for interpretation of a positive result. First, possible screening procedures for GHB are discussed, including colorimetric, enzymatic, and chromatography-based procedures. Confirmation methods for clinical and forensic cases mostly involve gas chromatography (coupled to mass spectrometry), although liquid chromatography and capillary zone electrophoresis have also been used. Before injection, sample-preparation techniques include (a combination of) liquid-liquid, solid-phase, or headspace extraction, and chemical modification of the polar compound. Also simple "dilute-and-shoot" may be sufficient for urine or serum. Advantages, limitations, and trends are discussed.
Rapid determination of 4-hydroxybutyric acid (Gamma OH) and 2-propyl pentanoate (Depakine) in human plasma be means of gas-liquid chromatography
Therapeutic gamma-hydroxybutyric acid monitoring in plasma and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
A sudden awakening from a near coma after combined intake of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) and ethanol
Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in biological specimens by gas chromatography--mass spectrometry
Analysis of biofluids for gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) by headspace GC-FID and GC-MS
Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in plasma and urine by headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/positive ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry
Development and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in rat plasma
Application of a convenient extraction procedure to analyze gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in fatalities involving gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, gamma-butyrolactone, and 1,4-butanediol
Capillary gas chromatographic determination of 1,4-butanediol and gamma-hydroxybutyrate in human plasma and urine
Club drugs: methylenedioxymethamphetamine, flunitrazepam, ketamine hydrochloride, and gamma-hydroxybutyrate
Rapid and sensitive detection of urinary 4-hydroxybutyric acid and its related compounds by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in a patient with succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase deficiency
Validation of a simple gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric method for the determination of gamma-butyrolactone in human plasma
Optimization of protein precipitation based upon effectiveness of protein removal and ionization effect in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with indirect UV detection and confirmation with electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry
Gamma hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) concentrations in humans and factors affecting endogenous production
Ultra-rapid procedure to test for gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in blood and urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Stability of plasma gamma-hydroxybutyrate determined by gas chromatography-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometry
Determination of endogenous levels of GHB in human hair. Are there possibilities for the identification of GHB administration through hair analysis in cases of drug-facilitated sexual assault?
Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in biological fluids by using capillary electrophoresis with indirect detection
Further evidence for the presence of GHB in postmortem biological fluid: implications for the interpretation of findings
The possible influence of micro-organisms and putrefaction in the production of GHB in post-mortem biological fluid
Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric determination of endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in rat brain regions and plasma
GHB in postmortem toxicology. Discrimination between endogenous production from exposure using multiple specimens
Rapid and direct analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in urine by capillary electrophoresis-electrospray ionization ion-trap mass spectrometry
A reference range for endogenous gamma-hydroxybutyrate in urine by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Position of chromatographic techniques in screening for detection of drugs or poisons in clinical and forensic toxicology and/or doping control
Analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid, DL-lactic acid, glycolic acid, ethylene glycol and other glycols in body fluids by a direct injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay for wide use
Simultaneous analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and its precursors in urine using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry
1H NMR analysis of GHB and GBL: further findings on the interconversion and a preliminary report on the analysis of GHB in serum and urine
Detection of exogenous GHB in blood by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry: implications in postmortem toxicology
Determination of the illicit drug gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in human saliva and beverages by 1H NMR analysis
Applications of ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) to the analysis of gamma-hydroxybutyrate and gamma-hydroxyvalerate in toxicological matrices
Clinical pharmacology of 1,4-butanediol and gamma-hydroxybutyrate after oral 1,4-butanediol administration to healthy volunteers
Disposition of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in conventional and nonconventional biologic fluids after single drug administration: issues in methodology and drug monitoring
Use of urine organic acids method for the analysis of gamma-hydroxybutric acid (GHB): importance of urease in eliminating urea interference
Prevalence of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in serum samples of amphetamine, metamphetamine and ecstasy impaired drivers
Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its precursors in blood and urine samples: a salting-out approach
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate concentrations in the blood of impaired drivers, users of illicit drugs, and medical examiner cases
Withdrawal from gamma-hydroxybutyrate, 1,4-butanediol and gamma-butyrolactone: a case report and systematic review
A new method for the HPLC determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) following derivatization with a coumarin analogue and fluorescence detection: application in the analysis of biological fluids
Intoxications due to ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone: organ distribution of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid and gamma-butyrolactone
Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in clinical samples using capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection
Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in serum and urine by headspace solid-phase dynamic extraction combined with gas chromatography-positive chemical ionization mass spectrometry
Illicit gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and pharmaceutical sodium oxybate (Xyrem): differences in characteristics and misuse
Simultaneous screening for and determination of 128 date-rape drugs in urine by gas chromatography-electron ionization-mass spectrometry
Headspace in-tube extraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of hydroxylic methyl-derivatized and volatile organic compounds in blood and urine
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate in urine and serum: additional data supporting current cut-off recommendations
Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in dried blood spots using a simple GC-MS method with direct "on spot" derivatization
Development and characterization of an enzymatic method for the rapid determination of gamma hydroxybutyric acid
Simultaneous determination of γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and its analogues (GBL, 1.4-BD, GVL) in whole blood and urine by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry
A validated GC-MS procedure for fast, simple, and cost-effective quantification of glycols and GHB in human plasma and their identification in urine and plasma developed for emergency toxicology
Endogenous γ-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations in saliva determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Dried blood spot punches for confirmation of suspected γ-hydroxybutyric acid intoxications: validation of an optimized GC-MS procedure
Injection port silylation of γ-hydroxybutyrate and trans-hydroxycrotonic acid: conditions optimisation and characterisation of the di-tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatives by GC-MS
Determination of γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), pregabalin, 1,4-butane-diol (1,4BD) and γ-butyrolactone (GBL) in whole blood and urine samples by UPLC-MSMS
Estimation of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) co-consumption in serum samples of drivers positive for amphetamine or ecstasy
A hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method for the simultaneous determination of γ-hydroxybutyrate and its precursors in forensic whole blood
Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and topiramate--clinically relevant drug interaction suggested by a case of coma and increased plasma GHB concentration
Feasibility of following up gamma-hydroxybutyric acid concentrations in sodium oxybate (Xyrem®)-treated narcoleptic patients using dried blood spot sampling at home: an exploratory study
Determination of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in biofluids using a one-step procedure with "in-vial" derivatization and headspace-trap gas chromatography-mass spectrometry
Quantitation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in dried blood spots: feasibility assessment for newborn screening of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency
Response to Stove and colleagues concerning newborn screening of succinic semialdehyde dehydrogenase (SSADH) deficiency in dried blood spots
Do capillary dried blood spot concentrations of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid mirror those in venous blood? A comparative study
Analysis of γ-hydroxy butyrate by combining capillary electrophoresis-indirect detection and wall dynamic coating: application to dried matrices
Stability of γ-Hydroxybutyrate in Blood Samples from Impaired Drivers after Storage at 4°C and Comparison of GC-FID-GBL and LC-MS-MS Methods of Analysis
γ-Hydroxybutyrate analysis in human serum with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry on the basis of MS3 mass transition
Methods for urine drug testing using one-step dilution and direct injection in combination with LC-MS/MS and LC-HRMS
Microwave-assisted on-spot derivatization for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry based determination of polar low molecular weight compounds in dried blood spots
Determination of γ-hydroxybutyric acid in saliva by capillary electrophoresis coupled with contactless conductivity and indirect UV absorbance detectors
The chemical toxicological investigation of gamma-hydroxybutyric acid in biological objects and the interpretation of the results of the analysis
Near-fatal persistent anion- and osmolal-gap acidosis due to massive gamma-butyrolactone/ethanol intoxication
Relationship Between Postmortem Urine and Blood Concentrations of GHB Furnishes Useful Information to Help Interpret Drug Intoxication Deaths
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