PMID: 8733803May 1, 1996Paper

Seasonal changes in affective state measured prospectively and retrospectively

The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental Science
K Nayyar, R Cochrane

Abstract

The study was designed to investigate whether seasonal mood and behavioural changes are detectable prospectively in a non-clinical population in the way they have been reported in retrospective studies. The specificity of any seasonal fluctuation in affective state was also investigated by measuring anxiety as well as depression. To measure seasonal fluctuations in affect and behaviour prospectively, 25 women were interviewed every month for one year using four scales (depression, anxiety, stress, and behavioural change). Retrospective accounts of mood and behaviour at the end of the year were collected with the Seasonal Pattern and Assessment Questionnaire (SPAQ). Seasonal depression peaked in winter as did atypical behaviour when measured either prospectively or retrospectively, but the difference between winter and summer was much more pronounced in the retrospective data. No seasonal effect was found for anxiety or psychosocial stressors. The results obtained by retrospective techniques have limited reliability. In the future, more prospective studies with unbiased, standardised instruments are recommended to measure seasonal variations in affect and behaviour.

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Citations

Jul 13, 2002·Journal of Affective Disorders·Hayriye ElbiSabri Yurdakul
Jun 11, 1999·Journal of Affective Disorders·P P MerschR H van den Hoofdakker
Mar 10, 2000·Journal of Affective Disorders·T Partonen, J Lönnqvist
Feb 5, 2000·Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry·M Molina-Hernandez, P Téllez-Alcántara
Aug 26, 1998·The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry·B K HoC Hong
Jan 13, 2006·Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences·Cecilia RastadJan Ulfberg
Oct 8, 1999·Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica·J Hardt, H U Gerbershagen
Nov 5, 1998·Lancet·T Partonen, J Lönnqvist
May 2, 2003·The British Journal of Psychiatry : the Journal of Mental Science·Erin E MichalakGreg Wilkinson
Sep 2, 2014·Comprehensive Psychiatry·Bryan S CobbJess G Fiedorowicz
Dec 16, 1996·Journal of Affective Disorders·S K RahejaC Thompson
Sep 8, 2009·Biological Psychology·Eddie Harmon-JonesCarly K Peterson
Dec 6, 2008·Biological Psychology·Carly K Peterson, Eddie Harmon-Jones
Jun 19, 2007·Journal of Affective Disorders·Nicolas M F OyaneBjørn Bjorvatn
Feb 18, 2005·International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry·Anton J M de CraenRudi G J Westendorp
Jul 19, 2005·Psychiatry Research·Vincenzo NatalePaolo Scapellato
Sep 28, 2002·Development in Practice·M Krishnaraj
Aug 15, 2000·Journal of Biological Rhythms·M G HarmatzI S Ockene
Aug 17, 2002·The International Journal of Social Psychiatry·Chris McConvilleWilliam Gilmore
Apr 23, 2019·Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences·Simon ØverlandIan Colman
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Jan 5, 2002·Chronobiology International·G MurrayJ Trinder
Jul 26, 2005·CNS Spectrums·Andres Magnusson, Timo Partonen

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