Selective Chemoembolization of Caudate Lobe Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Anatomy and Procedural Techniques

Radiographics : a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
Hyo-Cheol KimJin Wook Chung


Transarterial chemoembolization is the most common treatment for unresectable hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs). However, when an HCC is located in the caudate lobe, many interventional radiologists are reluctant to perform chemoembolization and percutaneous ablation owing to the tumor's complex vascular supply and deep location. With the advent of C-arm CT, rendering the three-dimensional display of the hepatic artery and detecting the tumor-feeding vessels are possible and can help guide interventional radiologists to the tumor. The common origins of the caudate artery include the right hepatic artery, left hepatic artery, right anterior hepatic artery, and right posterior hepatic artery. The origins of the tumor-feeding arteries of a caudate lobe HCC can vary depending on the tumor's subsegmental location. Caudate lobe HCCs are commonly fed by multiple caudate arteries that are connected. In addition, extrahepatic collateral arteries frequently supply recurrent tumors in the caudate lobe. The caudate artery can supply portal vein thrombi or biliary tumor thrombi in patients with HCC. Several techniques such as preshaping the microcatheter or using the shepherd's hook technique are needed to catheterize the caudate artery in c...Continue Reading


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