Serum gastrin in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: I. Prospective study of fasting serum gastrin in 309 patients from the National Institutes of Health and comparison with 2229 cases from the literature

Medicine
Marc J BernaRobert T Jensen

Abstract

The assessment of fasting serum gastrin (FSG) is essential for the diagnosis and management of patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Although many studies have analyzed FSG levels in patients with gastrinoma, limited information has resulted from these studies because of their small size, different methodologies, and lack of correlations of FSG levels with clinical, laboratory, or tumor features in ZES patients. To address this issue, we report the results of a prospective National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 309 patients with ZES and compare our results with those of 2229 ZES patients in 513 small series and case reports in the literature. In the NIH and literature ZES patients, normal FSG values were uncommon (0.3%-3%), as were very high FSG levels >100-fold normal (4.9%-9%). Two-thirds of gastrinoma patients had FSG values <10-fold normal that overlap with gastrin levels seen in more common conditions, like Helicobacter pylori infection or antral G-cell hyperplasia/hyperfunction. In these patients, FSG levels are not diagnostic of ZES, and gastrin provocative tests are needed to establish the diagnosis. Most clinical variables (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 status, presence or absence of the most ...Continue Reading

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