Serum gastrin in Zollinger-Ellison syndrome: I. Prospective study of fasting serum gastrin in 309 patients from the National Institutes of Health and comparison with 2229 cases from the literature

Marc J BernaRobert T Jensen


The assessment of fasting serum gastrin (FSG) is essential for the diagnosis and management of patients with the Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES). Although many studies have analyzed FSG levels in patients with gastrinoma, limited information has resulted from these studies because of their small size, different methodologies, and lack of correlations of FSG levels with clinical, laboratory, or tumor features in ZES patients. To address this issue, we report the results of a prospective National Institutes of Health (NIH) study of 309 patients with ZES and compare our results with those of 2229 ZES patients in 513 small series and case reports in the literature. In the NIH and literature ZES patients, normal FSG values were uncommon (0.3%-3%), as were very high FSG levels >100-fold normal (4.9%-9%). Two-thirds of gastrinoma patients had FSG values <10-fold normal that overlap with gastrin levels seen in more common conditions, like Helicobacter pylori infection or antral G-cell hyperplasia/hyperfunction. In these patients, FSG levels are not diagnostic of ZES, and gastrin provocative tests are needed to establish the diagnosis. Most clinical variables (multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 status, presence or absence of the most ...Continue Reading


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Jul 15, 2004·Endocrine Practice : Official Journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists·N A AhmadD C Metz
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Jan 26, 2006·Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology·Robert T Jensen
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Apr 21, 2006·Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery : Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract·Robert T Jensen


Jun 19, 2012·Abdominal Imaging·Aparna BalachandranChuslip Charnsangavej
Aug 21, 2010·Digestive Diseases and Sciences·J V OjeaburuRobert T Jensen
Nov 12, 2009·Current Gastroenterology Reports·Nauramy OsefoRobert T Jensen
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Aug 8, 2012·Annals of Surgery·Jeffrey A NortonRobert T Jensen
Feb 7, 2008·The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism·Maya B LodishP Gorden
Sep 22, 2010·World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG·Masayuki Imamura
Nov 1, 2012·World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG·Tetsuhide ItoRobert T Jensen
Dec 15, 2012·Chinese Journal of Cancer·Cynthia RoRun Yu
Dec 25, 2013·JMIR Research Protocols·Stephan ArigoniStefan Breitenstein
Feb 1, 2013·Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy·Tetsuhide ItoRobert T Jensen
Jan 14, 2011·Endocrine Research·Elizabeth BatcherAndrew G Gianoukakis
Apr 9, 2009·Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy·C Mel Wilcox, B I Hirschowitz
May 19, 2009·Gastroenterology Clinics of North America·K E McColl
Apr 5, 2008·The Medical Clinics of North America·Mitchell S Cappell, David Friedel
Feb 24, 2015·Gastroenterology Report·Sunil DachaMohammad Wehbi
Nov 24, 2016·Abdominal Radiology·Yehia M ElGuindyKhaled M Elsayes
Dec 20, 2017·Reviews in Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders·C FottnerMatthias M Weber
Jul 6, 2018·Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy·Lingaku LeeRobert T Jensen
Feb 19, 2015·Journal of Hepato-biliary-pancreatic Sciences·Simona Grozinsky-GlasbergDavid J Gross
Oct 17, 2007·The British Journal of Surgery·V FendrichM Rothmund
Nov 7, 2007·Wiener klinische Wochenschrift·Bruno Niederle
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May 11, 2010·Medizinische Klinik·Juliane BuchkremerMartin Zeitz
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Oct 10, 2014·Endocrine Practice : Official Journal of the American College of Endocrinology and the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists·A I Vinik
Nov 7, 2019·International Journal of Molecular Sciences·Holmfridur Helgadottir, Einar S Bjornsson
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Dec 10, 2013·The Oncologist·Irene Epelboym, Haggi Mazeh
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Jul 7, 2012·American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology·Natalia A VeniaminovaJuanita L Merchant
Nov 19, 2011·Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine·A MordecaiK L Mealey
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Jul 6, 2019·Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine·Ishani ShahKambiz S Kadkhodayan
Aug 5, 2017·Digestive Diseases and Sciences·Aaron H Mendelson, Mark Donowitz
Jan 9, 2018·Digestion·Akiko ShiotaniTakashi Sakakibara
Jan 4, 2018·The New England Journal of Medicine·Deepak AtriReza Manesh
Aug 7, 2019·Cancers·Andrea SansoneMarialuisa Appetecchia
Jun 2, 2020·World Journal of Gastroenterology : WJG·Zu-Yi MaBao-Hua Hou
May 17, 2012·The American Journal of Surgical Pathology·Andrea GrinRobert H Riddell
Nov 19, 2014·World Journal of Clinical Cases·Taichi NakamuraRobert T Jensen
Mar 23, 2017·Case Reports in Gastrointestinal Medicine·Adrienne LenhartYousuf Siddiqui
Oct 23, 2008·Annals of Clinical Biochemistry·Joy E S Ardill

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