Simple convergent-nozzle aerosol injector for single-particle diffractive imaging with X-ray free-electron lasers

Structural Dynamics
R A KirianH N Chapman


A major challenge in high-resolution x-ray free-electron laser-based coherent diffractive imaging is the development of aerosol injectors that can efficiently deliver particles to the peak intensity of the focused X-ray beam. Here, we consider the use of a simple convergent-orifice nozzle for producing tightly focused beams of particles. Through optical imaging we show that 0.5 μm particles can be focused to a full-width at half maximum diameter of 4.2 μm, and we demonstrate the use of such a nozzle for injecting viruses into a micro-focused soft-X-ray FEL beam.


Nov 30, 2005·Virology·Johannes A JehleRüdiger Hauschild
Aug 12, 2006·Science·Eric BetzigHarald F Hess
Dec 22, 2007·Nano Letters·Michael J BoganHenry N Chapman
Dec 17, 2008·Quarterly Reviews of Biophysics·Magnus BerghJanos Hajdu
Mar 1, 2009·Journal of Electron Spectroscopy and Related Phenomena·M R HowellsD Starodub
Feb 5, 2011·Nature·M Marvin SeibertJanos Hajdu
Jan 17, 2012·Annual Review of Physical Chemistry·Gerry McDermottCarolyn A Larabell
Jan 1, 2012·Nature Photonics·Anton BartyHenry N Chapman
Aug 3, 2014·The Journal of Chemical Physics·Daniela RuppThomas Möller
Feb 5, 2015·Nature Communications·Ingo BarkeThomas Möller
Feb 12, 2015·Nature Communications·Gijs van der SchotTomas Ekeberg

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Mar 1, 2018·Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics : PCCP·Christofer ÖstlinCarl Caleman
Mar 7, 2018·Journal of Applied Crystallography·Salah AwelHenry N Chapman
Oct 17, 2019·The FEBS Journal·Feng-Zhu ZhaoDa-Chuan Yin
Jun 30, 2019·Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry·Austin EchelmeierAlexandra Ros
May 4, 2016·Optics Express·Salah AwelHenry N Chapman
Nov 13, 2015·Optics Express·Bastian DeppeJochen Küpper
Oct 1, 2019·Annual Review of Virology·A Meents, M O Wiedorn
Sep 7, 2017·IUCrJ·J C H Spence
Feb 23, 2020·Annual Review of Physical Chemistry·Loren BanRuth Signorell
Aug 17, 2018·Physical Review. E·Jing LiuCarl Nettelblad

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Methods Mentioned

electron microscopy

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