Oct 30, 2019

Single-Molecule Analysis and Engineering of DNA Motors

Chemical Reviews
Sonisilpa MohapatraTaekjip Ha

Abstract

Molecular motors are diverse enzymes that transduce chemical energy into mechanical work and, in doing so, perform critical cellular functions such as DNA replication and transcription, DNA supercoiling, intracellular transport, and ATP synthesis. Single-molecule techniques have been extensively used to identify structural intermediates in the reaction cycles of molecular motors and to understand how substeps in energy consumption drive transitions between the intermediates. Here, we review a broad spectrum of single-molecule tools and techniques such as optical and magnetic tweezers, atomic force microscopy (AFM), single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET), nanopore tweezers, and hybrid techniques that increase the number of observables. These methods enable the manipulation of individual biomolecules via the application of forces and torques and the observation of dynamic conformational changes in single motor complexes. We also review how these techniques have been applied to study various motors such as helicases, DNA and RNA polymerases, topoisomerases, nucleosome remodelers, and motors involved in the condensation, segregation, and digestion of DNA. In-depth analysis of mechanochemical coupling in mol...Continue Reading

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Mentioned in this Paper

Molecular Motor Activity
Intermediate
DNA-Directed RNA Polymerase
Transcription, Genetic
Motor Neurons
DNA Supercoiling Activity
Single Molecule Imaging
Microscopy, Atomic Force
Topoisomerase
Optogenetics

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