Six Shades of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells Illuminated by KLF4 (Krüppel-Like Factor 4).

Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Carmen YapVivian de Waard


Multiple layers of vascular smooth muscle cells (vSMCs) are present in blood vessels forming the media of the vessel wall. vSMCs provide a vessel wall structure, enabling it to contract and relax, thus modulating blood flow. They also play a crucial role in the development of vascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis and aortic aneurysm formation. vSMCs display a remarkable high degree of plasticity. At present, the number of different vSMC phenotypes has only partially been characterized. By mapping vSMC phenotypes in detail and identifying triggers for phenotype switching, the relevance of the different phenotypes in vascular disease may be identified. Up until recently, vSMCs were classified as either contractile or dedifferentiated (ie, synthetic). However, single-cell RNA sequencing studies revealed such dedifferentiated arterial vSMCs to be highly diverse. Currently, no consensus exist about the number of vSMC phenotypes. Therefore, we reviewed the data from relevant single-cell RNA sequencing studies, and classified a total of 6 vSMC phenotypes. The central dedifferentiated vSMC type that we classified is the mesenchymal-like phenotype. Mesenchymal-like vSMCs subsequently seem to differentiate into fibroblast-like, macr...Continue Reading


Feb 5, 2003·The International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology·Charles W Archer, Philippa Francis-West
Mar 5, 2003·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Kerry L TysonCatherine M Shanahan
Jul 23, 2004·Physiological Reviews·Gary K OwensBrian R Wamhoff
Dec 18, 2004·Mutation Research·Martin Schröder, Randal J Kaufman
Dec 30, 2004·The Journal of Biological Chemistry·Yan LiuGary K Owens
Mar 24, 2007·Stem Cells·Christina Holmes, William L Stanford
Mar 24, 2007·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Mark W Majesky
Aug 8, 2007·Journal of Vascular Surgery·Eva M RzucidloRichard J Powell
Jul 7, 2007·Netherlands Heart Journal : Monthly Journal of the Netherlands Society of Cardiology and the Netherlands Heart Foundation·S S M RensenG J J M van Eys
Apr 9, 2008·Cell Metabolism·Kivanç BirsoyJeffrey Friedman
May 3, 2008·Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology·Xiaochun LongJoseph M Miano
Jul 2, 2008·Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America·Jenna N PassmanMark W Majesky
Jan 27, 2009·American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology·Rebecca A DeatonGary K Owens
Jan 28, 2009·Nature Reviews. Immunology·Antonio UccelliVito Pistoia
Jun 23, 2009·American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology·Andrew R KuhnCherie A Singer
Jul 7, 2009·Nature·Kimberly R CordesDeepak Srivastava
Aug 28, 2009·Biomaterials·Jeffrey A BeamishRoger E Marchant
Jan 22, 2010·The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics·Sean M GarveyBrian R Wamhoff
Aug 31, 2010·Stem Cells and Development·Changqing XieY Eugene Chen
Feb 8, 2011·Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology·Jennifer Baum, Heather S Duffy
Jun 15, 2011·The Journal of Clinical Investigation·Xudong LiaoMukesh K Jain
Dec 3, 2011·Cardiovascular Research·Philipp Jakob, Ulf Landmesser
Mar 1, 2012·Cardiovascular Research·Joshua M SpinPhilip S Tsao
Mar 8, 2012·PloS One·Carolina A YoshidaToshihisa Komori
Feb 6, 2014·Stem Cells·Laura E SidneyAndrew Hopkinson
Feb 28, 2014·Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis·Tadashi Yoshida, Matsuhiko Hayashi

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Methods Mentioned


Related Concepts

Related Feeds

Cardiac Aneurysm

Aneurysm refers to a bulge of the wall or lining of a vessel commonly occurring in the blood vessels at the base of the septum or within the aorta. In the heart, it usually arises from a patch of weakened tissue in a ventricular wall, which swells into a bubble filled with blood. Discover the latest research on cardiac aneurysm here.

Aortic Aneurysm

An aortic aneurysm is the weakening and bulging of the blood vessel wall in the aorta. This causes dilatation of the aorta, which is usually asymptomatic but carries the risk of rupture and hemorrhage. Find the latest research on aortic aneurysms here.