Dec 9, 2017

Six2 Plays an Intrinsic Role in Regulating Proliferation of Mesenchymal Cells in the Developing Palate

Frontiers in Physiology
Dennis O OkelloAdil J Nazarali

Abstract

Cleft palate is a common congenital abnormality that results from defective secondary palate (SP) formation. The Sine oculis-related homeobox 2 (Six2) gene has been linked to abnormalities of craniofacial and kidney development. Our current study examined, for the first time, the specific role of Six2 in embryonic mouse SP development. Six2 mRNA and protein expression were identified in the palatal shelves from embryonic days (E)12.5 to E15.5, with peak levels during early stages of palatal shelf outgrowth. Immunohistochemical staining (IHC) showed that Six2 protein is abundant throughout the mesenchyme in the oral half of each palatal shelf, whereas there is a pronounced decline in Six2 expression by mesenchyme cells in the nasal half of the palatal shelf by stages E14.5-15.5. An opposite pattern was observed in the surface epithelium of the palatal shelf. Six2 expression was prominent at all stages in the epithelial cell layer located on the nasal side of each palatal shelf but absent from the epithelium located on the oral side of the palatal shelf. Six2 is a putative downstream target of transcription factor Hoxa2 and we previously demonstrated that Hoxa2 plays an intrinsic role in embryonic palate formation. We therefore i...Continue Reading

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Citations

Mentioned in this Paper

Embryo
Six2
Short Interspersed Nucleotide Elements
Study
HOXA2 protein, human
HOXA2 gene
Patterns
Immunohistochemistry
Gene Knockdown Techniques
Six2 protein, mouse

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