PMID: 16382840Dec 31, 2005Paper

Skin penetration assessment of less lethal kinetic energy munitions

Journal of Forensic Sciences
Cynthia A BirMarianne Wilhelm

Abstract

The development of less-lethal technologies has provided law enforcement personnel with an alternative to lethal force. Although the less lethal projectile was produced to engender non-penetrating wounds, case studies show that there have been a number of reported penetrating injuries ranging from minor to significant in morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the energy per unit area required to penetrate various regions of the body. Eight unembalmed postmortem human specimens were procured for this testing. Each specimen sustained a maximum of 25 impacts consisting of shots to the anterior and posterior thorax, abdomen, and legs. A 12-gauge, fin-stabilized, rubber rocket round was used as the impactor for all of the conducted tests. The energy density required for 50% risk of penetration varied from 23.99 J/cm2 for the location on the anterior rib (p = 0.000) to 52.74 J/cm2 for the location on the posterior rib (p = 0.001).

Citations

Oct 11, 2011·International Journal of Legal Medicine·Sebastian N KunzOliver Peschel
Mar 6, 2010·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Vera SterzikMichael Bohnert
Nov 21, 2008·Forensic Science International : Synergy·M FrankA Ekkernkamp
Jun 3, 2008·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Czesław ChowaniecWeronika Karczewska
Apr 17, 2007·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Marianne Wilhelm, Cynthia Bir
May 22, 2010·Journal of Forensic Sciences·Humbert de FreminvilleEric J Voiglio
Oct 17, 2012·Journal of Forensic Sciences·Scott R LucasAndrew Hinz
Mar 30, 2010·Journal of Forensic Sciences·Matthias FrankAchim G Beule
Mar 13, 2012·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Cynthia A BirShelby Stewart
May 1, 2013·Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering·Julien PavierJean-François Jacquet
Nov 23, 2017·Clinical & Experimental Optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association·Stephen J DainB Ralph Chou
May 23, 2014·Journal of Forensic Sciences·Marija BakovicDavor Mayer
Jan 30, 2010·The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology·Humbert de FreminvilleEric J Voiglio

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