PMID: 16382840Dec 31, 2005Paper

Skin penetration assessment of less lethal kinetic energy munitions

Journal of Forensic Sciences
Cynthia A BirMarianne Wilhelm


The development of less-lethal technologies has provided law enforcement personnel with an alternative to lethal force. Although the less lethal projectile was produced to engender non-penetrating wounds, case studies show that there have been a number of reported penetrating injuries ranging from minor to significant in morbidity. The objective of this study was to determine the energy per unit area required to penetrate various regions of the body. Eight unembalmed postmortem human specimens were procured for this testing. Each specimen sustained a maximum of 25 impacts consisting of shots to the anterior and posterior thorax, abdomen, and legs. A 12-gauge, fin-stabilized, rubber rocket round was used as the impactor for all of the conducted tests. The energy density required for 50% risk of penetration varied from 23.99 J/cm2 for the location on the anterior rib (p = 0.000) to 52.74 J/cm2 for the location on the posterior rib (p = 0.001).


Oct 11, 2011·International Journal of Legal Medicine·Sebastian N KunzOliver Peschel
Mar 6, 2010·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Vera SterzikMichael Bohnert
Nov 21, 2008·Forensic Science International : Synergy·M FrankA Ekkernkamp
Jun 3, 2008·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Czesław ChowaniecWeronika Karczewska
Apr 17, 2007·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Marianne Wilhelm, Cynthia Bir
May 22, 2010·Journal of Forensic Sciences·Humbert de FreminvilleEric J Voiglio
Oct 17, 2012·Journal of Forensic Sciences·Scott R LucasAndrew Hinz
Mar 30, 2010·Journal of Forensic Sciences·Matthias FrankAchim G Beule
Mar 13, 2012·Forensic Science International : Synergy·Cynthia A BirShelby Stewart
May 1, 2013·Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering·Julien PavierJean-François Jacquet
Nov 23, 2017·Clinical & Experimental Optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association·Stephen J DainB Ralph Chou
May 23, 2014·Journal of Forensic Sciences·Marija BakovicDavor Mayer
Jan 30, 2010·The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology·Humbert de FreminvilleEric J Voiglio

❮ Previous
Next ❯

Related Concepts

Trending Feeds


Coronaviruses encompass a large family of viruses that cause the common cold as well as more serious diseases, such as the ongoing outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; formally known as 2019-nCoV). Coronaviruses can spread from animals to humans; symptoms include fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties; in more severe cases, infection can lead to death. This feed covers recent research on COVID-19.


Blastomycosis fungal infections spread through inhaling Blastomyces dermatitidis spores. Discover the latest research on blastomycosis fungal infections here.

Nuclear Pore Complex in ALS/FTD

Alterations in nucleocytoplasmic transport, controlled by the nuclear pore complex, may be involved in the pathomechanism underlying multiple neurodegenerative diseases including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Frontotemporal Dementia. Here is the latest research on the nuclear pore complex in ALS and FTD.

Applications of Molecular Barcoding

The concept of molecular barcoding is that each original DNA or RNA molecule is attached to a unique sequence barcode. Sequence reads having different barcodes represent different original molecules, while sequence reads having the same barcode are results of PCR duplication from one original molecule. Discover the latest research on molecular barcoding here.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

Chronic fatigue syndrome is a disease characterized by unexplained disabling fatigue; the pathology of which is incompletely understood. Discover the latest research on chronic fatigue syndrome here.

Evolution of Pluripotency

Pluripotency refers to the ability of a cell to develop into three primary germ cell layers of the embryo. This feed focuses on the mechanisms that underlie the evolution of pluripotency. Here is the latest research.

Position Effect Variegation

Position Effect Variagation occurs when a gene is inactivated due to its positioning near heterochromatic regions within a chromosome. Discover the latest research on Position Effect Variagation here.

STING Receptor Agonists

Stimulator of IFN genes (STING) are a group of transmembrane proteins that are involved in the induction of type I interferon that is important in the innate immune response. The stimulation of STING has been an active area of research in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Here is the latest research on STING receptor agonists.


Microbicides are products that can be applied to vaginal or rectal mucosal surfaces with the goal of preventing, or at least significantly reducing, the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Here is the latest research on microbicides.