Sniffing Out Urinary Tract Infection-Diagnosis Based on Volatile Organic Compounds and Smell Profile

Valentin-Mihai DospinescuJ A Covington


Current available methods for the clinical diagnosis of urinary tract infection (UTI) rely on a urine dipstick test or culturing of pathogens. The dipstick test is rapid (available in 1-2 min), but has a low positive predictive value, while culturing is time-consuming and delays diagnosis (24-72 h between sample collection and pathogen identification). Due to this delay, broad-spectrum antibiotics are often prescribed immediately. The over-prescription of antibiotics should be limited, in order to prevent the development of antimicrobial resistance. As a result, there is a growing need for alternative diagnostic tools. This paper reviews applications of chemical-analysis instruments, such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry (SIFT-MS), ion mobility spectrometry (IMS), field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) and electronic noses (eNoses) used for the diagnosis of UTI. These methods analyse volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that emanate from the headspace of collected urine samples to identify the bacterial pathogen and even determine the causative agent's resistance to different antibiotics. There is great potential for these technologies to gain wide-spread and rou...Continue Reading


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Related Concepts

Drug Resistance
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Urinary Tract Infection
Spectrometry, Mass, Secondary Ion
Urine Dipstick Test
Laboratory Culture

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