Socioeconomic effects on the risk of having a recognized pregnancy with Down syndrome

Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
C Torfs, R E Christianson

Abstract

Appoximately 95% of Down syndrome (DS) cases are caused by an error in germ cell division (meiosis), resulting in an extra chromosome 21. The meiotic error, predominantly of maternal origin, occurs either during the mother's fetal life (meiosis I) or at ovulation (meiosis II). Because maternal-age-specific DS prevalence rates vary between and within populations, it has been hypothesized that environmental factors can affect the risk for a DS pregnancy. In a population-based case-control study of 997 clinically recognized DS cases (including fetal losses) and 1007 controls without a birth defect, we examined the mother's socioeconomic status (SES) from the time of her fetal life to the time of conception. SES variables were considered as proxies for environmental factors. We used multiple logistic regression for the analyses. We found associations with low levels of each SES variable examined: mother's education less than high school (OR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.01-1.65), father's low occupation (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.95-1.60), father's low education (OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.99-1.64), mother's father's low occupation (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.06-1.71), and family income <$20,000 (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.02-1.68) [corrected]. The risk for DS increased ...Continue Reading

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Citations

Apr 6, 2013·Genetics in Medicine : Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics·Jessica Ezzell HunterStephanie L Sherman
Nov 17, 2004·Genetics in Medicine : Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics·Roberta E ChristiansonClaudine P Torfs
Feb 26, 2009·The European Journal of Contraception & Reproductive Health Care : the Official Journal of the European Society of Contraception·Ozlen TurgulSibel Akkol
Jun 30, 2006·American Journal of Community Psychology·Susan J Martorell, Gabriela A Martorell
Oct 3, 2007·Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews·Stephanie L ShermanSallie B Freeman
Nov 30, 2011·Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology·A J AgopianLaura E Mitchell
Sep 30, 2005·Cytogenetic and Genome Research·S L ShermanN E Lamb
Jan 23, 2019·American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part a·Jorge Román Corona-RiveraSinhué Alejandro Brukman-Jiménez
Feb 8, 2020·Nature Reviews. Disease Primers·Stylianos E AntonarakisRoger H Reeves

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